Stakeholder analysis

The project environment analysis (abbreviated PUMA or PUA, also called Project Environmental Analysis ) is an analysis of the environment of a project. It is a method of project management that identifies all relevant stakeholders ( " Stakeholders " ) of a project. The PUMA sees a project as a social system and creates the definition of the stakeholders in the project environment. It is at least at the start of a project carried out in order both to make empowering the people involved, by involving them in the project organization and on the other hand, to take measures for critical stakeholders. It is the basis for project planning, project marketing and risk analysis.

  • 4.1 Opportunity-risk portfolio
  • Table 4.2 Measures

Objectives of the project environment analysis

The goal is to capture all factors of the project:

The project environment analysis shows an overview of all project stakeholders ( as individuals or organizational units) with their importance to the project, their attitude to the project, their expectations of the project, the expectations of the project to the / the relevant stakeholders.


Objectives and scope of the project, and the main project officials must be known before the project environment analysis. An already completed project planning, however, is not necessary. The main actors in the project environment to create a workshop PUMA:

Active stakeholders ( in particular the project team and project leaders, representatives of the line organization, power promoter / client, professional promoter / customers) and passive stakeholders ( eg local authorities, council, competitors, family members of the project staff, indirectly affected by the project staff ).

Establishment of a PUMA

Identification of all relevant environments

The identification of all relevant environments is supported by the following key questions:

Seams of the project

Each meeting of the project boundary with its environment systems is traditionally referred to as organizational interface. In more recent approaches, this is referred to as a better interface, with which the unifying of the seam is highlighted in relation to the cutoff ends of a section.

The implementation of the project goals at the interfaces to other systems should be replaced as often as possible through agreements on the overlapping areas between the systems. The rules include the controlled handover and takeover of pre- defined results and the agreements of clear contact persons in each group environment.

Key questions are:

Portfolio presentation ( Force Field Analysis ) and evaluation

If environments and interface are known, they are recognized and valued in a portfolio graphic:

  • Individuals, interest groups
  • Importance to the project (size / close to the circle )
  • Attitude to the project , -, or / - ( positive, negative or neutral)

The assessment of the significance of the individual environments for the project can be represented by differently sized circles and proximity to the project by different distances. The proximity or distance to the project can be highlighted by concentric circles around the project. The central expectations or fears of the respective project environment to the project are indicated by , - shown - or /.

It helps to put yourself in the shoes of a particular interest group to capture their expectations and fears. To clarify also the direct contact with those concerned can be taken. The overall view is always to give priority in doubt.

Expectations / fears

The above results are recorded in a table and added two columns: expectations / fears to the project, expectations / fears from the project to person / interest group


Opportunity-risk portfolio

The thus detected contradictions, conflict potentials and opportunities can be presented in the opportunity-risk portfolio.

Actions Table

The results so far show the social networking of the project and serve the derivation of strategies and measures related to individual environments. These measures incorporated into the project planning with a.

Further use

In the course of the project progress ongoing varying boundary conditions must remain under observation and, where appropriate, PUMA are performed repeatedly. The project environment analysis is a prerequisite for risk analysis as project risks are usually caused by external interference.