Stanisław Wojciechowski

Stanisław Wojciechowski ( born March 15, 1869 in Kalisz, Russian Empire, † April 9, 1953 in Warsaw, Poland). Was President of the Republic of Poland 1922-1926 He was one of the founders of the Polish Socialist Party, is considered the father of the cooperative movement in Poland and was ousted in the wake of the takeover by Marshal Józef Piłsudski during the so-called " Maiputsches ". Then he stood in opposition to the authoritarian regime.


Wojciechowski was active during his youth, first in the conspiratorial organization " Zet ", but allied himself during his 1888 recorded in Warsaw mathematics and physics studies with the socialist movement in Poland. Already in 1892 he abandoned his studies and he decided after two-time detention stays for the exile, first in Zurich and Paris. There he learned the trade of typesetter, which he provided for his livelihood. He was a 1892 co-founders of the Polish Socialist Party, who met in Paris and participated in the following year, on the first, illegally organized party conference in Vilnius, where he met Piłsudski. He traveled several more times illegally Congress Poland and Tsarist Empire and smuggled printing machine components and printed matter. Besides Piłsudski he was the main agent of the socialist movement. In 1899 he got married. Shortly after he was deported from France. He found his new center of life in London, where he worked as a typesetter, printer, journalist and publisher.

After 1905, the majority of Polish Socialists saw the national liberation struggle in opposition to socialist internationalism and a hindrance to the class struggle, he left the Polish Socialist Party. After the amnesty in 1906, he returned back to Warsaw and took part in the cooperative movement by Edward Abramowski. Meanwhile evoluierten his political views towards the center. During World War II he was one of the supporters of Russia, fled in 1915 before the German army, and came only after the October Revolution back to Warsaw.

On 9 December 1922 he stood as a candidate in the presidential election, but was defeated in the fourth ballot to the landowner Count Maurycy Zamoyski and the later elected Gabriel Narutowicz. Following the assassination of President Narutowicz by the ultra-nationalist painter Eligiusz Neviadomski on 16 December 1922, the candidacy waiver Piłsudski, who did not want to be blocked in a " gilded cage " according to his own words, Wojciechowski was by the National Assembly on the recommendation of Sejmmarschalls Maciej Rataj with the votes of the Left and the Centre on the first ballot elected head of state. For the right candidate the historian Kazimierz Morawski.

Wojciechowski, who had been Minister of the Interior from 1919 to 1920, enjoyed great prestige among the workers and also in parts of the rural population.

Wojciechowski tenure was overshadowed by an increase in unemployment and inflation, by waves of strikes, financial scandals, numerous government crises and ultimately bloody riots in Krakow and other cities. 1923 Piłsudski resigned as army chief and chairman of the powerful military council. In November 1925 depicted the formation of a coalition government led by Aleksander Skrzyński is the last attempt to get at the serious economic problems of the country by parliamentary means.

The demands Piłsudski after a disciplining and restraining parliamentary opposed the president, citing the principle of legality. After the coup, and the capture of Warsaw by troops Piłsudski President Wojciechowski was forced on the night of May 15, 1926, together with the government to resign, to give the Marshall a free hand to initiate the " reorganization of the state" to authoritarian basis. The president Ignacy Moscicki was transmitted, who acted as a puppet Piłsudski and the military.

Following the resignation Wojciechowski worked as a lecturer at the School of Economics and the College of Agriculture in Warsaw. In 1937, he sat down with the activists of the Fronts of Morges in conjunction and was co-founder of the opposition Party of Labour.