Red-necked Silphe ( Oiceoptoma thoracicum )
The Staphylinoidea are a superfamily of Polyphaga from the order of the beetles ( Coleoptera). They are present worldwide and comprise seven families with more than 58,000 species. By far the most species-rich family of this group are the rove beetles ( Staphylinidae ) with far more than 48,000 described species.
The delineation of this superfamily is based on a concept by Hansen (1997 ) on the basis of nine putative autapomorphies: On pronotum missing below the rear edge of the ridge as a locking mechanism; on the ventral side of the wing covers ( elytra ) is missing the medio -lateral connecting region ( binding patch ); the hind wings lack the apical fold ( "apical hinge" ) distal to the radial cell; the hind wings have no media loop; the hind wings have only one wing vein before the " media bar"; the basal part of the aedeagus is missing ( membranous ); in the larvae the tenth abdominal segment on invertible Anallobus is covered with numerous fine teeth; the larvae lack the head and the Frontoclypealnaht the Urogomphi are formed, bipartite and mobile. You may also see the presence of only four, instead of six Malpighian tubules an autapomorphy, the dwarf beetle ( Ptiliidae ) is, however, have only two.
Taxonomy and systematics
While some of the autapomorphies are doubtful - for example, the lack of Frontoclypealnaht in the larvae, which is missing in many other taxa, or the moving Urogomphi which also occur in the larvae of most species of Adephaga, hydro Philo Idea and Histeroidea - the monophyly of Staphylinoidea but is particularly well justified because of the characteristics of the wing.
Within the superfamily there are two large kinship lines. The " ptiliide " line, which the dwarf beetle ( Ptiliidae ) and long- button water-beetles ( Hydraenidae ), and is justified by 12 autapomorphies, and the " staphylinide " line, which the families of rove beetles ( Staphylinidae ), carrion beetles ( Silphidae ) and ant beetle ( Scydmaenidae ), and is due at least by 17 autapomorphies. How to represent the relationships between these two groups to the remaining two families of sponge ball beetle ( Leiodidae ) and Scheinaaskäfer ( Agyrtidae ), is not yet fully understood. Either the two families form a third line that " leiodide " line, and are a sister group of the " Staphylinidae " line, or the sponge ball beetles are the " ptiliiden " line most closely related to and in turn form a sister group to the Scheinaaskäfern.
The Staphylinoidea includes the following families:
- Long- button water-beetles ( Hydraenidae ), about 1300 species
- Beetles or dwarf Federflügler ( Ptiliidae ), about 550 species
- Scheinaaskäfer ( Agyrtidae ), more than 60 species
- Leiodidae, about 3460 species
- Ant beetle ( Scydmaenidae ), about 4600 species
- Carrion beetles ( Silphidae ), about 200 species
- Rove beetles ( Staphylinidae ), about 48,000 species