Stefan Nemanja ( * approx from 1113 in Duklja, Dioklitien, today Ribnica in Podgorica, † February 13, 1200 in Hilandar ) was a Serbian Großžupan. He was the second son of Zavida and a brother Tihomirs. He reigned from 1167 to 1196 as a Serbian Großžupan about Raszien, Zeta and the coastal states.
Stefan Nemanja, originally only Nemanja, was the founder of the dynasty of Nemanjić or Nemanjic. The name Stefan he lay down as a prince of honor and name should be the name of honor of kings from the house of Nemanjic. It is uncertain whether Nemanja was his birth name or if he was the name, which means as the non -do, has also risen. According to tradition his father had him baptized Zavida on this name during his exile. On the other hand, was Nemanja his life as a very pious, so the idea was born, Nemanja had this name may eventually granted themselves.
Already in youth Nemanja showed ambitious and makes us aware and excited because of his unconventional and unauthorized conduct the wrath of his brothers. After his older brother Tihomir the fall he became the Großžupan Rasziens. He had three sons with his wife Ana: Vukan, Stefan and Rastko or Sava of Serbia. Nemanja was baptized as a Roman Catholic Christian, exactly when it is converted to the Orthodox Church controversial. With Nemanja also the tradition of Nemanjic began as a monastery founders, the most important monastery Foundation was Nemanja Studenica Monastery.
Nemanja initially held Byzantium loyalty but dared 1183-1190 a revolt and conquered with the help of Hungary Ostraszien, Dioklitien including the city of Shkodra, the city of Kotor and the same Kotor Bay, parts of Bulgaria and Macedonia. Only Dubrovnik could withstand his attacks. In Niš met Nemanja 1189 Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, who went on the Third Crusade via Niš along the Via Militaris Asia Minor. It conquered the armies of Sofia. Next said Nemanja Barbarossa full support against Byzantium, and has deepened its conflict with the Byzantine Emperor Isaac II After the peace agreement between Isaac and Barbarossa on 14 February 1190 Hadrianopolis grabbed Isaac army allied with Barbarossa Serbs and Bulgarians to. Nemanja was defeated in 1190 in the Battle of the Morava, but offered Isaac mild conditions of peace and continue to tolerate the Serbian autonomy. Nemanja had to Sofia, Skopje, Prizren and Niš return to Byzantium, the toleration of autonomy meant de facto recognition of the independence of Serbia.
Stefan Nemanja retired in 1197 as a monk Simeon of Mount Athos back and left it there from 1198 to 1199 with his son Sava renew the abandoned Greek monastery Hilandar, where he died in 1200. After his death, his remains were in the monastery Studenica, which he had selected during his lifetime as resting place, convicted, and was buried on the south wall. The Orthodox Church declared him a saint. Stefan Nemanja was succeeded by his second son Stefan, called Nemanjić or Erstgekrönte.