Stellenbosch ( Afrikaans: [ stɛləmbos ], [ stɛləmbos ] ) is a town in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. It is Cape Town 's oldest European-founded settlement in what is now South Africa. 2011, the city had 77,476 inhabitants.
Stellenbosch is situated about 50 kilometers east of Cape Town along the Eerste River in Rivier 114 meters above sea level. For urban area after an administrative reform of 2002 includes the villages of Franschhoek and Peniel and the Kayamandi township, Ida 's Valley and Cloetesville. The surrounding countryside is nestled in a mountain landscape with fertile valleys. It is based on agriculture and is one of the most important wine regions of South Africa. Ten kilometers north of the city runs the N1 highway.
The climate of Stellenbosch Cape Town is the very similar. The monthly minimum and maximum values , however, are slightly further apart as Stellenbosch bit further inland. The monthly precipitation amount in summer on average less than 25 mm, in winter between about 50 and 75 mm. The mean maximum values reached in the summer of almost 25 ° C in winter to 17 ° C; the average minimum temperatures in summer are between 14 ° C and 18 ° C, in winter is still over 10 ° C.
After the main locality Stellenbosch the works, the Middle ( Middle Stone Age) is named Stellenbosch industry.
After the Dutch East India Company (VOC ) from the mid-17th century had begun to colonize the Cape and Cape Town was founded in 1652, called the Dutch governor of Cape Town, Simon van der Stel, in the course of colonization of the hinterland further in 1679 on the River Eerste River a new settlement in life. According to its founder the place " stelae bush " was first, later also "bush van der Stel " and eventually named " Stellenbosch ". The first settlers farmed and turned back after a failed oak reforestation reinforced the viticulture. For a long time Stellenbosch was the easternmost outpost of the Cape Region, the protection of the VOC einrichtete a camp of soldiers. Due to the good economic conditions, the city grew rapidly in 1682 a Regional Authority was established in 1685 and Stellenbosch was of court.
In the years 1710, 1804 and 1875, major fires investigated home town, and several floods of the Eerste River did make great damage. These setbacks and the expansion of the Cape Colony to the east and north as well as the increasing influence of the British led many settlers, ultimately as part of the " Great Trek " to leave the city, so that their importance fell more and more in the 19th century. Only the foundation of the University in 1918 gave the city some of its former importance back.
In the middle of the 20th century the wine began to recover for a short time economically, before the sentences imposed for the policy of apartheid sanctions caused a renewed decline. Only after the end of apartheid in the economic life came back into the swing, to the increasingly well-established tourism also next to the wine.
The Stellenbosch region is known for the export of high-quality wine that comes from more than 120 wineries, and is considered a top destination for tourism, which has for years recorded high growth rates. There are about 260 mostly smaller accommodation establishments with a total of over 3000 beds and more than 140 restaurants. Since the 1990s, Stellenbosch is one of the medium-sized cities of South Africa, whose economy is growing the fastest.
In Stellenbosch is located with the University of Stellenbosch one of the leading universities in South Africa. It emerged from a secondary school founded in 1866. Here the intellectual elite of the Boers had their roots; Numerous high-ranking politicians have studied or taught here. 2013 are enrolled in Stellenbosch about 28,000 students; to the university include ten faculties. The main building, the " Ou Hoofgebou ", built in 1886 in neoclassical style.
In Stellenbosch, many houses have been preserved from the time of the East India Company in the Cape Dutch style, so that the inner city is a landmark in itself. Four of the most beautiful homes have been grouped together for the Dorp Museum. They have been carefully restored and furnished with furniture of the era, such as the Rozenhof.
In the south of the city, the Erfurt House, an 1876 Victorian- style villa is located.
In the eastern city center is Stellenbosch's oldest church, the Dutch Reformed Moederkerk, built in 1772. The church originally still provided with a thatched roof was rebuilt in 1863 by the German architect Carl Otto Hager in neo-Gothic style. The gleaming white facade is typical of the Western Cape.