Stephen I of Hungary
Stephen I of the Holy (Latin: Sanctus Stephanus, Hungarian: Szent István, Slovak: Štefan Svätý; * 969 in Esztergom, † August 15, 1038 ) was a Magyar prince of the dynasty of Árpád and from 1000 to 1038 the first King of the he reasoned multiethnic Kingdom of Hungary. He is considered the patron saint of today's Hungary and Christianized the pagan Magyars. His feast day is August 20, which is also national holiday in Hungary. The Roman Catholic Church commemorates this saint on August 16.
Together with his father Géza Stephen was baptized 985 of Adalbert of Prague. During the Grand Prince Géza despite the baptism basically remained Heath, Stephan received a Christian education. This was reinforced by the marriage of Stephen with the Bavarian duke 's daughter Gisela, sister of the emperor Henry II In addition, the wedding consolidated the alliance of Hungary with the Bavarian princes who had still 991 out a campaign against the Hungarians, and sealed the bond of Hungary to the Western Church. When Stephan 997 succeeded his father as Grand Duke, he was probably a Christian by conviction thanks to the influence of Adalbert of Prague. At the beginning of his reign, he first had to prevail against his uncle Koppány that rose as a clan elder even the claim to the princely chair.
In the year 1000 Stephan sent the abbot Astricus ( Anastasius ) from the wake Adalbert to Pope Sylvester II, with the request after the granting of royal dignity. This concern by the German Emperor Otto III was supported. , Who was related to Stephan and there was at the same time in Rome. Anastasius finally brought the crown jewels with back to Hungary and later became Bishop of Gran ( Esztergom ) appointed, the head of the Hungarian National Church. The coronation of Stephen by a papal envoy on August 17, 1000 Gran was associated with the installation of this country church and probably also with the donation of the Kingdom of Hungary to the Pope, who returned it to it as a fief to Stephan. This step is analogous to the creation of the Kingdom of Poland, the rule of Stephen and the continuity of succession should back up to his family.
Stephan sat as King continued to Christianity. He took a particularly German religious missionaries into the country. He was in touch with Bruno of cross- ford and Odo of Cluny. In addition, he ordered the political structure of Hungary's new. The old tribal areas he replaced with about 40 counties ( Vármegye ). Each bailiff ( Ispán ) not only served as regional manager, but also as a military leader of the free warrior who Jobagionen, his county.
On September 2, 1031 accident Stephen 's only son Emmerich ( Imre ) at a bear hunt fatal, so that suddenly the sons of Géza 's brother Michael was heir to the throne, but still tended to paganism. Stephen I, therefore, made his cousin incapable of ruling by out his eyes and let pour some lead into his ears. The others fled to Poland and Russia. He then appointed Peter Orseolo, the son of his sister Mary, his successor. 1038 Stephan died and was buried next to his son in St. Mary's Church in Székesfehérvár ( Szekesfehervar ). His remains were transferred to Buda later. On August 20, 1083 Stephen was canonized along with his son.
The crown, the Stephen I was, according to tradition, the Crown of St. Stephen, Hungary was Staatsinsignie as a kingdom and in the dual monarchy of Austria -Hungary and also crowns the present state coat of arms of Hungary. Today it is preserved as a national treasure in the Hungarian Parliament building. In fact, however, all its parts is more recent, it can not therefore act to Stephen's crown.
Among the monuments dedicated to Saint Stephen in Budapest is one of an established between the Fisherman's Bastion and Matthias Church equestrian statue.
The August 21 is as Szent István Nap (day of St. Stephan) is a national holiday. The festivities in Budapest be ended with a fireworks display at the Chain Bridge, which will be broadcast by Hungarian Television.