The supine is an infinite verb form. It is found in relatively few languages and expresses mostly an intention or a purpose. Usually the supine used with a Bewegungsverb. Languages that have no supine use, instead often the infinitive. The supine there was probably in Proto - Indo-European.
The ancient Slavic ( cf. alttschechisch spati vs. late. ) Knows it. From the living languages eg Lower (eg Zi late, " Go to sleep! " ) And Slovenian (eg grem jest, " I 'm going to eat ").
In Latin there are two supination. The supine I is found exclusively in function of verbs of motion and is the same shape as the neuter singular of the passive participle (PPP ); the ending is - tum. The Supin II is formed by adding, in the form of Supin I omit the - m ( ex: laudare, Supin I: laudatum, Supin II: Laudatu ). Supin I will be with " to " and II translated by " to". The forms are rare.
- Marcus nuntium Misit rogātum Vinum. - Marcus sent a messenger to ask for wine.
- Amici venērunt grātulātum. - The friends came to congratulate.
- Hoc est facile dictu. (That's easy to say. )
- Iucundum cognitu est. ( It's nice to know. )
In Lithuania a supine exists (eg eik Malku atneštų " go fetch wood / about wood " ), but is often instead of Supinums that with the conditional tense (3rd person ) is the same shape, use the infinitive. The Bewegungsverb can be removed as already the Supinumform alone implies the ineffable meaning.
The supine is with a preposition - formed and the participle - mostly de:
- De lucrat from the verb a Lucra ( work )
- De scris from the verb a scrie (write)
It is often combined with the verb a avea ( have ) used and expresses the intention of the obligation of:
- On de lucrat (I have to work, I have to work )
- On de scris ( I have to write, I need to write )
It also serves in the formation of many composites in which it is mostly the purpose of expressing:
- Maşină de scris ( typewriter, word for word: machine for writing)
- Maşină de spălat (washing machine, literally: machine for washing )
In the Swedish grammar is supine with the addition indeklinable form of the past participle denotes that together with the respective forms of the auxiliary verb ha ( have ) is used to form perfect or pluperfect:
- Jag har druckit lite vatten. ( I drank some water. )
In contrast stands the declined and and adjectival participle:
- Det druckna vattnet ( the drunk water)