A swamp is a wetland in river valleys and lake shores.
Description of the biotope
Swamps are terrestrial habitats with occasionally strong waterlogged, muddy soils with standing water, without that, in contrast to the bog, peat is formed on the surface. In everyday language, the separation of swamp and marsh, however, is unclear. Often both terms are also used interchangeably. Unlike swamps bogs but prevails in a permanent water saturation. Occasional drying out into swamps to a complete degradation of organic matter into humus, in bogs is due to the permanent water saturation this degradation is inhibited, so that peat can occur.
Free tree, some bushes rich, dominated by marsh plants communities that thrive on wet mineral and organic soils (see soil type), can exist only in permanent water surplus. The delineation of marsh to other habitat types is not easy. Marshes form intermediate forms of habitats such as bogs, silted waters to moist meadows and thickets. Hochstaudenfluren, small harrows communities, sedge reeds or damp willows are typical vegetation. Swamps are threatened by drainage and agricultural use, were and are but partially renatured again. Artificially, this habitat will be created in gardens through a swamp flower bed the plant.
Etymology and field names
The word swamp occurs since the Middle High German with English swamp related ( swampen westfäl., spill, vary ') and also with sponge, mushroom '.
Another word for swamp with ( former ) bush or forest inventory is the fracture or, in Low German Brook, Brock, Broich, Brauck (corresponding to Old High German bruoh , Middle High German bruoch, Old English broces, Dutch broek ). The characteristic Auvegetation is the fraction forest.
Also the same facts in question, but regionally occurring mainly in landscape terms are Luch name (of Slavic lug, meadow ' ) in Brandenburg and Pitze (s) in Bavaria and Austria ( during moss refers explicitly to a peatland reference ).