Syam is a commune in the French department of Jura in the Franche -Comté.
Syam is on 560 m above sea level. M., about six kilometers south-southeast of the city Champagnole (air line). The village is located in the Jura, a slight increase on the eastern edge of a basin in which the Saine and the Ain unite, at the western foot of the forest height Côte Poire.
The area of 6.90 km ² municipal area includes a portion of the French Jura. The central part of the area occupied by the basin of Syam, extending in a north-south direction, has a length of 2.5 km and a width of about one kilometer and an average of 540 m above sea level. M. lies. This basin is drained by the Saine, which enters from the southeast, and shortly thereafter receives from the left the Lemme and then flows on the northern border of the municipality spell in the Ain. This touches the basin only in the extreme north and draws a sharp bend to the ridge of the Bois de Sapois before it flows through a narrow valley to Champagnole.
The municipal area extends to the surrounding heights. Flanked the valley of Syam in the west of the Bois de la Liège (up to 660 m above sea level. M. ), in the north of the Bois de Sapois, in the east of the Côte Poire ( 802 m above sea level. M. the highest elevation of Syam ) and the Bois des Chenes. In the south, partly traversed by bands of rock forest height of the Bois de Derrière Cornu rises steeply. It is bordered by the deep valleys of the Lemme and Saine.
To Syam the settlement Les Forges heard ( 525 m above sea level. M. ) at Ain and at the southern foot of the Bois de Sapois. Neighboring communities of Syam are Champagnole, Bourg -de- Sirod Sirod and in the north, Crans and Planches -en- Montagne in the east, Chaux -des- Crotenay in the south and Le Vaudioux and Cize in the West.
Since the Middle Ages belonged to the barony Syam Chateau- Vilain. Together with the Franche -Comté reached the village with the Peace of Nijmegen in 1678 to France.
Left quite early on Ain workshops down that were dependent on hydropower. Since the 17th century there was an iron hammer. In the 18th century it belonged to the work of the Pery family, which mainly specialized in the manufacture of scythes, to major companies in the region. As various operations began after the French Revolution in the Vosges and Alsace with the mechanical sense making, the work of Pery went bankrupt in 1810. In the same year it was bought by Claude Jobez from Morez. From 1811 to 1820, the new factory with iron and rolling mill was built, which was later extended with a working class neighborhood, a school and a post office. The steel mill is still in operation today, after numerous upgrades were performed over time.
The village church of Syam was built in the 19th century. East of the factory building stands the Château de Syam, which was built from 1826 to 1828 in the Palladian style for the owner of the ironworks. It has a rich interior. The ensemble of the factory building of the iron and steel industry in the early 19th century, the old iron hammer from the 18th century and the associated Château Carnot form a remarkable industrial monument. To visit is also an exhibition about the history and development of the iron works of Syam.
With 199 inhabitants (as of 1 January 2011) Syam is one of the small towns in the Jura. After the population had decreased significantly in the first half of the 20th century (1886 492 persons were still counted ), only relatively small fluctuations were recorded since the early 1960s.
Economy and infrastructure
Syam was coined in the 18th century by the ironworks. To streamline production and management, the ironworks of Syam merged in 1976 with the steel mill Experton Revollier of Domène in the department of Isère. Today, the plant occurs under the name SDEPM ( Société d' Etirage et de profilage of métaux ) and has established itself as rolling and punching for highly specialized metal parts ( for example, automobiles, elevators and Fitters ).
The village is located off the major thoroughfares on a secondary road that leads from Champagnole to Les Planches -en- Montagne. Further road links exist with Bourg -de- Sirod, Crans and La Billaude.