Symphony No. 29 (Mozart)
The Symphony in A major Köchelverzeichnis 201, by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1774. According to the Old Mozart Edition, the symphony has the number 29
Mozart finished the symphony Köchelverzeichnis (KV) 201 on April 6, 1774 in Salzburg. Regarding genesis and composition occasion see at 162 KV
Several authors emphasize the importance of this symphony emerged as the culmination of Mozart's symphonic oeuvre. This reflects not only the length and formulated " sonata form " of the first, second and fourth set, all with the express coda on the counterpoint especially in the first set and the expressive power (eg in the long implementation in the fourth set ).
"It's a new feeling for the necessity of deepening the Symphony by imitative revival, their salvation from the merely decorative by chamber-music delicacy. The instruments change their character; the violins are spiritual, the brass avoid all noise end, the figurations everything Conventional. The new spirit is documented in all sets (...). "
This symphony and K. 183 are the earliest of Mozart 's symphonies, which have established themselves in the concert program.
About the Music
Instrumentation: two oboes, two horns in A ( in the second sentence in D), two violins, viola, cello, double bass. In contemporary orchestras, it was also common, even without separate listing bassoon and harpsichord (if available in the orchestra ) to reinforce the bass line or use as continuo.
Performance time: approximately 25 to 30 minutes (depending on adherence to the prescribed repetitions)
When used herein the terms of sonata form is considered that this scheme was designed in the first half of the 19th century (see below) and can be transferred from there to restrictions on the Symphony K. 201. - Note that this description and structure of sentences is to be understood as a suggestion. Depending on your view, other accruals and interpretations are possible.
First movement: Allegro moderato
A major, 4/4-time, 206 cycles
The first theme (bars 1-18) begins - for a symphony that time unusual - piano and forte not. The theme is based on a two-bar motif with characterizing octave leap down and subsequent quaver movement with repeated notes and half-step. This motif is sequenced up. After eight bars, followed by a reconciliation -like passage in the violins, before the whole orchestra forte repeats the theme - but now imitative by bass and viola mixed with the topic two quarter beats running to the violins. The following reconciliation section (bars 18-32 ) is first by strings tremolo and held chords of the wind instruments, then ( bar 23 ff ) characterized by a figure with alternation of forte and piano. In bar 32, the double dominant B major is reached, the dominant table for use of the second theme (bars 33 ff ) acts in E major.
The second issue is at the piano and is kept only for strings. It is divided into three sections of four measures each. In scene of the first section a repeated note falls on, reminiscent of the first theme. The whole subject of the first section is from the 2 in the second violin section varies the lead vocal opposite.
It joins from bar 45 a forte section with guided in the tremolo melody line and characteristic intervallic leaps to, which is repeated from bar 53 in a different form with imitation of the 1st violin by the second violin and piano in Fort spin drying. From bar 63 again follows a tremolo passage, now also participates in the bass on the tremolo and the melody line is characterized by owning. The final section (bars 68 ff ) is based on broken Akkordmelodik in eighth rounds of the violins. The exposition ends as chromatically falling figure in the first violin in measure 76 and is repeated.
The " implementation " first attacks the chromatically falling figure in Forte unison to and " processed " in the following two new motifs, that is, it is not necessary to seek material of the exposition. The first new design consists of trill, quaver run over one octave upward and then downward octave leap in D major (bars 79-82 ). Derived from this is a variant with eighth running up / down and broken triad in neighborhoods that / double bass is played on imitative tremolo of the violins and held chords of the oboe between viola and cello. Here Mozart changes over E major and F-sharp minor to B minor. The second new design is in tact upbeat 92 in F sharp minor and the Piano. It is two-stroke sequenced with interrupted by pauses, border bass figure is up and going from bar 99 in a crescendo that increases up to forte with syncope on E major. About a falling character (much like at the end of exposure), the recapitulation is reached in measure 107.
The recapitulation is similar to the exposure structured. After repetition of development and recapitulation concludes clock 185 the coda to, in the first theme occurs again, now in three-part stretto ( vocal leader: 1st Violin, Cello / Double Bass Viola ). A fourth incomplete applications bring the horns. The movement ends with Akkordmelodik and quaver movement in the Forte.
Second movement: Andante
D major, 2/4-cycle, 109 clocks, violins with mutes
The first theme is carried forward only by the strings in the piano with vocal leader, muted violins. It has a typical periodic structure consisting of two groups of four clocks, which is characterized by its easy march-like melody line with dotted rhythm ( Doppelpunktierung ). As in the first set, will also be the same at the beginning of contrapuntal work place: In front set the offset playing second violin imitates varies the first violin, in the postscript she then takes over the lead vocals, while the first violin gets its own vote against. Viola, cello and bass accompany. From 9-13 clock followed by a short transition section in which to use for the first time the wind. With a derived from the first theme phrase Mozart changes from D major over B minor to E major.
The second theme (bar 14 onwards ) is designed with homophonic vocal leader first violin. After four cycles followed by an approach to the varied repetition of the first theme with the famous dotted rhythm, which is spun out from clock 20.
The final section (bars 27 ff ) begins pianissimo with a new, pendelartigem motif that is repeated four times, the last two times with wind accompaniment, with the oboe participates in the melody. The conclusion is a continuous triplet, where as in the first sentence at the end of the first violin plays alone. The exposition ends at bar 38 and is repeated.
In the implementation (measure 39-52 ) the triplet runs from the end of exposure in second violin and viola on, but under a new motif with trills. With this design Mozart changes from D major to G, and B major and E minor by. The section from bar 46 can be viewed as a feedback to the recapitulation, with its repeated notes in the still passing triplets (in both violins now ), which has a Bläserfanfare ( 51-52 clock ) is announced.
The recapitulation is largely similar in structure to the exposure; Changes involve, for example, the extended transition to the second theme and the participation of the horn to the tune at the second attempt of the second theme. After repetition of development and recapitulation follows from bar 98 a coda with sluggish, upward continuous line that ends in a stressed derivative and triplets " falls back " to which the procedure is repeated again. In bar 104 a surprisingly put the wind in the Forte, the oboes staggered the start of the first topic of play, which is taken up by the first violin in measure 106 the revocation of the damper.
Third movement: Menuetto
A major, 3/4-time, 32 22 bars
The minuet is (similar to in the second sentence ) characterized by its march-like melody with dotted rhythms. Winds and strings alternate partly dialogical. Striking is a signal motif, which consists of repeated notes with dotted rhythm in unison. This occurs at the end of the first part (Winds Forte ), at the beginning of the second part (strings fortissimo ) and at the end of the second part (Winds Forte ) on. The second part also contains another motif in B minor uses (bars 15 ff ), and in which only the prelude of note repetition has a dotted rhythm; this is offset by Viola, Cello and Double Bass imitated.
The Trio in E Major contrasts with more bound Melodilinie and predominantly piano a minuet. The dotted rhythm fades into the background, but emerged at the end of the first and second part again. The beginning of the second part is characterized by chromaticism. It is striking that the function of the wind across the trio only limited to two sustained chords.
Fourth movement: Allegro con spirito
A major, 6/8-measure, 187 cycles
Characteristic of the set are several virtuoso runs ( "Coup d' archet ", "Mannheim rocket" ) as well as longer passages with tremolo.
The first topic is achttaktig with four cycles antecedent and consequent. The dominant motif is the antecedent of the octave leap down ( like at the beginning of the first set ), followed by a run- up ( " Oktavsprungmotiv "); the consequent is characterized by its falling trill figure. Both parts are available in the Forte and repeated from bar 9 piano by the strings, but in the postscript from clock 13, a Fort spin drying begins, the upward after a seventh and a sixth for the first time the full "rocket", that is, the running of a twelfth brings, here as rocket down (and later up). From bar 22 is followed by a new motif in the Forte of broken chords in staccato quavers which is guided dialogue between first violin and bass, accompanied by the brass and the other strings ( in this tremolo ).
In the second theme (bar 34 ff ), only the strings play the piano. It consists of a repeated note of H with umspielungsartigen Provision in the first violin, in the from bar 35 the second violin begins with the actual, continuous downward motif. This total four-bar section is repeated, followed by a downward continuous arcade with over Hold (cycle 43-47 ) or " hesitant " chromaticism (cycle 48-51 ). The final section (bars 52 ff ) is characterized by Tremolo and energetic chord changes (E - flat major / B major / A major). Last played by the first violin, the "rocket" upward; that is, as in the first and second set ended the 1st violin only exposure. The "rocket" this is not an end, but appears open, after a continuation demanding. The exposition is repeated.
The implementation ( clock 62-101 ), which emphasizes the Alfred Einstein ( 1953), processes the " Oktavsprungmotiv " from the beginning of the sentence: it is modulated (over diminished chords and, for example G major, C major, C # major, F-sharp major) and from measure 81 ( F sharp minor ) between the bass ( forte) and violins ( piano) bouncing back and forth. Already from bar 74 the bass had taken up the characteristic octave leap, but still without running. From bar 96 the known of the final group energetic chord changes occur, upwards over a " Raktete " in the recapitulation (bars 102 ff ) reconciled.
The recapitulation is similar to the exposure structured. She goes from bar 167 after the "rocket" the final group in a coda, the first again in Forte unison brings the Oktavsprungmotiv, followed by the motif of broken triads (according to clock 22) and the energetic chord changes in A major / D major ( ie tonic - subdominant ). The movement ends with a final "rocket", the open character is only now two simple chords, ( dominant-tonic ) answered.
Web links, notes
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Symphony in A major KV 201 Ernst Eulenburg Ltd.. No. 546, London / Mainz undated ( pocket score )
- W. Meves: Symphonies de W. A. Mozart. Collection Litolff No. 168 Henry Litolff 's Verlag, Braunschweig undated ( output of about 1890, including a version of the symphony KV 201 for piano 2 hands )
- Symphony in A major KV 201: Score and critical report in the New Mozart Edition