Symphony No. 38 (Mozart)

The Symphony in D major, K. 504, by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1786. The plant is also called " Prague Symphony " and leads to the old Mozart Edition Symphony Number 38


The first reference to the symphony Köchelverzeichnis (KV) 504 can be found in the catalog of Mozart with an entry from December 6, 1786 Work on the final movement was started in the spring of 1786, but then -. Apparently because of the commitment to other jobs - interrupted and resumed only in connection with the other sentences. It is unclear on what occasion Mozart wrote the symphony; possibly for a Viennese academy or a performance abroad. The invitation to Prague by a " big society connoisseurs and lovers " (Letter from Leopold Mozart to Nannerl of 12 January 1787) came only after the completion of the work and is therefore probably not have been the trigger for the composition. Cliff Eisen (1991 ), however, thinks that Mozart had composed for the symphony possibly the trip to Prague.

The premiere took place on January 19, 1787 in Prague as part of an academy, a day after a performance of Figaro. Mozart convinced during the Academy apparently so much as a pianist that the symphony was not even mentioned in some contemporary accounts, and developed only after some time be a favorite of the audience.

Some authors point to musical contexts of K. 504 to the operas Figaro and Don Giovanni.

It is unclear why Mozart wrote for the symphony no minuet. Volker Scherliess (2005) enumerates the following conjecture, but which he considers not convincing:

  • Mozart had wanted to build on Italian models;
  • 've Mozart while composing the minuet perceived as not according to style;
  • Mozart had waived with respect to a planned trip to England aware of the minuet;
  • Lack of time.

Alfred Einstein (1953 ) thinks that the minuet is missing because in the existing records "all told " had already. Theodor Kroyer (1931 ) suggests tension and turbidity in Mozart's emotional life; similarly manifests itself Kurt PAHLEN (1978 ) when he asks if "Mozart did not want to be interrupted by a slight dance such a serious business? "

About the Music

Instrumentation: two flutes, two oboes, two bassoons, two horns in D, two trumpets in D, timpani, two violins, viola, cello, double bass. In contemporary orchestras possibly a harpsichord (if available in the orchestra ) was used as a basso continuo instrument.

Performance time: approximately 30-35 minutes.

When used herein the terms of sonata form is considered that this scheme was designed in the first half of the 19th century (see below) and therefore can be transmitted 504 only with restrictions on the Symphony KV. - Note that this description and structure of sentences is to be understood as a suggestion. Depending on your view, other accruals and interpretations are possible.

All movements of the symphony in common is that in the implementation of the second issue does not occur.

First movement: Adagio - Allegro

D major, 4/4-time, 302 cycles

Adagio (cycle 1-36): The solemn introduction starts out as a sustained chord in unison with drum rolls on D. About a prelude -like, rolling thirty-second figure is D then four times energetic, but repeatedly shortened the note value. It close - the alternation of winds and strings as well as Forte and Piano - Owning with their resolutions and cadenza-like, chromatic figures on. From bar 16 is followed by a new motif, which is composed of two opposing cycles: the first cycle in the Forte, with syncope in the violins and a distinctive triad bass figure, the second clock in the Piano with ascending thirty-second figure in the first violin and of sustained whole note in the bassoon. This motif appears in D minor, B flat major, F major, D major, G minor and diminished chord on G #, which serves as a suspension to the next pedal point on A ( cycle 28-33 ). The introduction ends in a chromatic figure down and sounds like chord changes of D and A as a fermata on the A Major - seventh from.

The Adagio is the longest introduction that Mozart ever wrote. Volker Scherliess (2005) feels when listening to a "game of figures and gestures with different traits and moods " recalls. Due to the change in the dynamics, the modulations and the numerous chromatic deposits produced a varied timbre.

Allegro ( clock 37-302 ): The first issue begins after one clock Synkopenbegleitung the first violin in the other strings. It has vocally - quiet character and is presented piano (motif 1a). In the fifth clock themes, the first violin triggers their support and plays one on contrasting, upbeat, energetic figure ( motif 1b). The themes concludes with a brief Bläserfanfare Forte with octave leap upward and falling scale ( Scene 2). The theme is then repeated without the Bläserfanfare, but with counter-movement in the first oboe. Alfred Einstein ( 1953) brings to mind the Magic Flute at the beginning of the overture issues.

After four reconciliation measures ( design 1b in second violin / viola, this in first violin, the new Motif 3 from pausendurchsetztem triad and Derivative ) closes in measure 55, a longer Forte block to, for the motif 4 with its sixteenth - turning figure is formative. Due to the increase of the sixteenth - figures and the imitative use of Motif 4 is compacted of the action. From bar 63 dominant motif 1b, but occurs already at 66 clock back a new motif (motif 5) from ascending Dreiklangsflokseln up which leads to the dominant A major. Instead of the expected second theme is in measure 71 but surprisingly the first theme as a variant in A major one. The bars 77 ff combine the motifs 1b and 3, from bar 88, the polyphonic structure solves by semiquaver runs in the violins on ( to cyclically chromatically ascending line in the bass ).

The second eight-bar theme ( from bar 97, A- flat major ) is in its first half from repeated broken chord figures with Liegeton, in its second half from a wound - chromatic figure and closing Kadenzfloksel. It is repeated in A Minor with bassoon participation, and shall in the second half as an extension with brass participation in the new design 7 on somewhat reminiscent of motif 1a and motif 2. Final section from bar 121 begins with motif 4 in offset application, followed by motif 5 and the head of the first theme (motif 1a) in Forte and in high position. The exposition ends with motif 1b and falling Akkordmelodik in A Major.

The implementation ( clock 143-207 ) can be divided into the following sections:

  • Clock 143-150: imitative section worked with the upward sequenced motif of Bläserfanfare from the beginning of a sentence ( subject 2), only Strings in A major, piano.
  • Clock 151-155: Forte - use in D major, continue processing of motif 2
  • Clock 156-161: In addition to motif 2 occurs motif 1b.
  • Clock 162-169: Scene 1b and Motif 4 are set against each other; starting first in F sharp minor, from bar 166 repeat from E minor.
  • Clock 170-176: intensification by increasing density with motif 4 and up sequencing.
  • Clock 177-189 correspond to clock 59-71 and provide a discharging voltage is built up;
  • 190-194 clock: clock corresponds to 72-76.
  • Clock 195-207: Return to the recapitulation: pedal point on A- Dur ( A major harmony is already at measure 187 dominant) with motif 1b and a falling figure with Provision.

The differences between the onset of stroke in 208 Reprise and exposure are, inter alia, in the discharge of the tutti section corresponding to clock 55 ff and the absence of the second insert from the main theme (bar 72 ff.) Right at the beginning of the recapitulation, the A of topics beginning is tightened to the Ais (according to clock 72) oboe vote against the repetition of the topic contains a brief major-minor contrast ( clock 218/219 ) and the final group is cantilevered designed (z. B. tremolo of the violins clock 290 ff.)

Exposure and development and recapitulation are repeated.

" Playful grace and strict contrapuntal writing, polyphonic voice leading and cantabile line, " learned "and" gallant " style next to each other and are intertwined - and that in such an organic, natural way that you can it at hardly at the mere hearing, but only Consider analytical notes. "

Second movement: Andante

G Major, 6/8-measure, mention 148 cycles, trumpets and timpani

First, the strings submit a vocal melody in the piano. The chromatic run at the end of cycle 3 but goes over the target tone G addition to the E, then drops back down to G in measure 5; the theme is repeated with chromatic deposits under wind participation. In bar 8 introduces a new, essential for the further course of the movement staccato quaver motif in Streicherunisono. This motif is from measure 10 sequenced in the first violin up - backed by the tremolo of the other strings. With five heavy -eighth blows to e forte ( bar 18 ) is a modulation to E minor ( bar 19 ) announces that the following strings cadence continue on in D minor, B flat major ( bar 23 ff with new, again singing motif) and A minor / A major leads.

The second theme ( from bar 35, the dominant D major ) is presented by the strings piano over a pedal point on D. It has vocal character, distinguished gesture and alternates between legato and staccato. In the repetition of the theme, the final phrase of the solo wind players will continue shortly, then grab Oboe / Bassoon and Strings in question-answer - dialogue the issues figure as a variant. A short motif with tone repetition terminates the exposure.

After repeating the exposure the implementation carries out the final design of the end of the exposure on. From bar 64 is the first theme then in different keys ( C major, D minor, E minor ) presented " disturbed " by a variant of the staccato quaver motif, in which winds make dissonant interjections. After the last appearance of the first theme in E minor follows from clock 83, a polyphonic section in which the eighth motif offset, in contrary motion and chromatic changes (eg clock 83: G # instead of G in the 1st violin ) is processed. From bar 90 the action calmed down over Terzfiguren the conduction occurs to the recapitulation.

The recapitulation ( from bar 94) has, in contrast to exposure, inter alia, at the beginning to be no repeat of the first theme, the pitches are slightly modified in some cases (for example, clock 103: f and f sharp and held as a), as well as some harmonies. The clocks 145-148 can be considered as small Coda: access again the eighth motif that runs through the instruments one last time. The movement ends with the motif in the bass and pianissimo. Development and recapitulation are not repeated.

Alfred Einstein ( 1953) takes a connection of this sentence to the aria " Dalla sua pace", which have nachkomponiert for Don Ottavio to Vienna performance of Don Giovanni Mozart: the first bars were almost identical. Volker Scherliess (2005) sees the brass stabs (eg clock 18 and 73 /74) Theodor Kroyer a (1931 ) says, however, " deadly serious character, as voices from the beyond. ": " That way, the root of the Andante's not even is meant so seriously that he is not at least as dark as could feign " dramatic " accents carrying him, the teasing final confirmations tell us in the exposition (bar 54) and particularly in the recapitulation (bars 141 ff). "

Third movement: Presto

D major, 2/4-cycle, 350 cycles

The first theme is symmetrically of two eight-bar halves. The first four bars each contain three Achttakters upbeat eighth ( as a broken third) to a half note ( " main subject ", as it is for the other block structure of meaning) and a falling syncopated line. The other four measures consist of a spherical figure, which first (cycle 4-8) the change takes place between B minor and E minor, then (cycle 12-16) between A major and D major. The Forte block from bar 17 below defines the main subject in the whole orchestra with timpani rolls and changes to the dominant A. After that, the theme is repeated, but with a very different tone: presented in d minor and only by the flutes and oboes (bassoon time).

The Forte block from bar 47 begins similarly to the previous with the main subject, but now in F major, and modulated by d- minor to E major, which acts as a dominant to the A major of onset in bar 66 the second theme. The claimed for the second subject area is unusually long (measure 69-97 ). The theme consists of a sixteen -stroke, which in turn can be divided into four-bar subunits: four bars antecedent in the strings, this is repeated set higher, then four bars postscript in flute, oboe and bassoon and four bars closing figure in the strings. The clocks 82-97 are a repeat with richer instrumentation Represents the motif of the antecedent can be derived from the figure of clock 7/8 derived.

In bar 95-109 it comes to the third appearance of the first theme in A major, played by flute, oboe and bassoon, but with a variant in the second half of Achttakters. Clock 110-120 are correspondingly clock 17 ff and 47 ff clock designed with the main subject in offset application. From bar 120 the main motive occurs then set in oboe and bassoon, accompanied by Triolenläufen the first violin. Final section from bar 130 contains the main subject a new trill motif in the violins and ends the exposure to Akkordmelodik and tremolo.

The implementation beginning is designed as a contrast series of four measures each Forte in the whole orchestra with tremolo and emphatic bass on the one hand and the four measures of the beginning of the first theme in the piano in flute, oboe and bassoon other. The passage from bar 176 is according to clock 17 ff structured ( main subject in staggered application ), the passage from bar 184 engages the first four bars of the first issue, starting on G to get back on. Starting from G, follow key change as well as the exchange of syncopated and nichtsynkopischen falling lines from the main subject (eg stroke 186/187 and clock 190/191 ). More consolidations describes Wolfgang Gersthoferstrasse (2007):

"(...) The momentum of the anspringe ligand is initially eighth after three cycles to be heard again ( T. 185, 188 ), but the next time only five bars later ( T. 193). Then enlarged Mozart during the first two four-stroke ( T. 184-191 ) continuously thematic Intervallik: Treble T. 184/185 g -d ( fifth); Lower voice, T. 185/186 g -e ( sixth ), lower voice T. 188/189 d -c ( Septim ), Treble T. 189/190 d -d ( octave ). Third, are the long high notes in the upper voice ascending line in large seconds, the beginning, middle and end of the whole development marks: T. 185 d'' ' - T. 193 e'' ' - T. 201 fis '' '. All this works together to T. 184-206 to make it one of the most uncompromising passages in the symphonic literature of the late 18th century (...). "

The recapitulation begins in measure 216 with the first topic. Deviations from the exposure arising, inter alia, by the fact that the woodwinds are already voting leader in clock 224 with the pitches to clock 9 are transposed up a fourth order. In bar 228 " crashes a Tutti - block " in G minor in, similar to the implementation, for example, in clock 160 ff exposure and development and recapitulation are repeated.

Alfred Einstein ( 1953) wrote to Presto: " And the finale is one of those strange D major sets of Mozart, leaving a wound in the soul despite the apparent serenity and true perfection. Connected with the beauty is death" Volker Scherliess ( 2005) and Wolfgang Gersthoferstrasse (2007 ) point to parallels between the first theme and the start of Duettino Susanna / Figaro, Cherubino from the second act. Volker Scherliess also emphasizes the instrumentation, " in particular the interplay between violins and woodwinds, which give the set an ethereal color. "

References, notes

Web links, notes, literature

  • Symphony in D KV 504: Score and critical report in the New Mozart Edition
  • Symphony 38 (Mozart): notes and audio files in the International Music Score Library Project.
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Symphony D major " Prague ". Ernst Eulenburg Ltd.. Volume 446, London / Zurich undated ( pocket score, foreword by 1931).
  • W. Meves: Symphonies de W. A. Mozart. Collection Litolff No. 168 Henry Litolff 's Verlag, Braunschweig undated ( c.1890, including a version of the symphony KV 504 for piano 2 hands )
  • ER Sisman: Genre, Gesture, and Meaning in Mozart 's " Prague " Symphony. In: Cliff Eisen (ed.), Mozart Studies 2 Oxford 1997, pp. 27-84 ( this source was not evaluated in the present article).