Symphony No. 4 (Mozart)
The Symphony in D major Köchelverzeichnis 19 composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1765. According to the counting of the old Mozart Edition wears the number 4
The symphony was composed by the nine year-old Mozart in 1765 as part of the trip to London ( see at KV 16). At the suggestion of his father Leopold Mozart, Wolfgang was intensely occupied with the symphonies of his contemporaries (eg, Carl Friedrich Abel, Johann Christian Bach, Johann Gottfried Eckard, Hermann Friedrich Raupach ), which is reflected in the structure of KV 19.
About the Music
Instrumentation: two horns in D, two oboes, two violins, viola, cello, double bass. In contemporary orchestras, it was also customary to use even without separate listing bassoon and harpsichord to reinforce the bass voice and continuo.
Duration: about 14 minutes.
In the terms used here based on the sonata form is considered that this scheme was designed in the first half of the 19th century (see below) and therefore only with restrictions, this symphony can be transferred. The sets correspond more to the two-part form, in which the second part of the sentence is considered as a modified run of the first ( " exposure "). - Note that this description and structure of sentences is to be understood as a suggestion. Depending on your view, other accruals and interpretations are possible.
First movement: Allegro
D major, 4/4-time ( Alla breve ), 78 cycles
The set is of a fanfare (cycle 1-8) broken D Major - opens triad with dotted rhythms, which was then used esp. of post horns and trumpets military. She returns not again in the further course of the movement. A reconciliation follows part of clock 9 to 21 with a lot of tremolo in the two violins, chords in the winds and runs and broken chords in dotted rhythm for viola and bass. A similar structure of the opening theme and transition used in the Mozart Symphony KV 43, but there something sophisticated. The "second theme " in the piano with more motivartigem character begins on the double dominant E major and then forwards only to the dominant A above. Not sharp deposed to the following reconciliation section from which the clocks are 30-33 highlight in A Minor with syncope. The clocks 38 to 46 with chord and trills can be seen as the end group. The first part of the sentence ( " exposure " ) ends in measure 46 on the dominant A, but is not repeated as usual, but goes with syncope on the unsuspected Ais more directly.
The second part of the sentence begins with a reconciliation -like passage with runs in the bass and darübergelegtem Tremolo / chords. In bar 60 is a second issue that now modulates from A major to D major. It follows from clock 70-78 the final group.
Overall, this set has a march-like, sometimes overture -like character by his pace, the fanfare, and the lack of melodic themes. It is repeated as a whole.
Second movement: Andante
G Major, 2/4-cycle, 45 cycles
The oboe mention in this sentence with pastoral character. The first theme (bars 1-8) contains the antecedent a dotted motif, in the postscript characteristic Zweiundreißigstel triplets in the first violin. These triplets are characteristic of the entire set and occur otherwise, especially among the other strings.
Without reconciliation now begins the " second theme " (cycle 8-12) in the dominant D major, which only exists but for a motive with half-step in the second violin and viola, while first violin and horns about an octave to A hold. By the end of the " exposure " in measure 19, the embossed by triplets final group follows. It closes to clock 26 a short " implementation " part of where the antecedent of the first theme is heard once in all strings. With this antecedent is in a clock 27, the recapitulation in the tonic G major. The second theme is then modulated via E minor and D major back to G major in which this movement ends with the final group.
Zaslaw suggests that " the yodeling melodies and droning accompaniment " to remind us of hurdy-gurdy and bagpipe.
Third movement: Presto
D major, 3/8-time, 106 cycles
The first theme is characterized by four times, energetic tone repetition of D in unison and Forte in the antecedent; the consequent with dotted motif is repeated in the echo-like piano. The reconciliation (cycle 13-20 ) consists of a sequence of chords, trills and tremolo. Noteworthy here is the rapid change in the dynamics ( piano - forte), sometimes also placed in the instruments. For the second theme in the dominant A- flat major, is presented, unusually, in Forte, Mozart uses a motif, in which second violin and bass alternating with short phrases of three tones. The motif is repeated in the piano, but now with the first instead of the second violin and the participation of the viola. The final section (bars 29-42 ) contains staccato runs down to A, at the very end of the first part of the sentence ( " exposure " ) comes again four times repeated notes as at the beginning, but now on A.
After a short transition section with shouldered Terzbewegung in Piano (cycle 43-50 ) followed by a 50-84 clock " implementation " section, in which the antecedent processed by the first theme and the second theme (first theme: Sequenzierierung by E Minor later modulation to B minor, second subject: modulation to B minor). Then set the second theme in the tonic D major one (cycle 85 ), followed by the final group ( stroke 93-106 ). The movement ends with four times the repeated notes in unison.
Web links, notes
- Symphony in D KV 19: Score and critical report in the New Mozart Edition
- Symphony No. 4: notes and audio files in the International Music Score Library Project.
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Sinfonia in Re, K. 19 PR 780, Ricordi publishing house, Milan, 1955 ( pocket score ).