Symphony No. 48 (Haydn)

The Symphony in C major, Hoboken directory I: 48 Joseph Haydn composed probably in 1769 during his tenure as Kapellmeister to Prince Nikolaus Esterházy. The symphony bears the not coming from Haydn nicknamed " Maria Theresia ".


The Symphony No. 48 Haydn composed probably in 1769 during his tenure as Kapellmeister to Prince Nikolaus Esterházy. The autograph is not preserved, but a copy from Hofkopisten Joseph Elssler from 1769 exists.

The title " Maria Theresia " is not from Haydn and is also handed down in any of the numerous copies. He first appeared in 1812 with Ernst Ludwig Gerber, then later on a print of the 1860s, and is enshrined in 1879 by Carl Ferdinand Pohl. On Pohl also based the unproven assertion that Haydn had the symphony in 1773 listed the visit of the Empress Maria Theresa at the court of Esterházy. ( In the older literature will also partly claimed Haydn had composed the symphony especially for the visit of the Empress. ) In some copies of the Symphony No. 48 also carries the title of " Laudon " what appears on a confusion of the Symphony No. 69 associated with a similar beginning of the first movement. Perhaps the Symphony during a visit of the Empress on Kittsee in 1770 or during their visit at Schloss Esterházy was listed in 1773. The extent of the symphony in the title of empress visit has its origin is unclear.

About the Music

Instrumentation: two oboes, two horns, two violins, viola, cello, double bass. Bassoon and harpsichord were to reinforce the bass voice then even without special notation used, insist on the participation of the harpsichord in the literature different opinions. Have in its original version without trumpets and timpani " the extraordinarily high level of difficulty is particularly clearly expressed, because the work requires precise Strings, excellent wind and especially risk-seeking horn players, which is also a technical addition to the musical task" to complete tightrope " in C alto. " In some early copies, there are also voices for two trumpets, which should obviously serve to reinforce or substitute for horns. In some other sources timpani also have survived. Until 1773 (visit of Maria Theresa in Esterháza ), these instruments were not used in the court orchestra regularly.

Performance time: approximately 25 to 30 minutes (depending on adherence to the prescribed repetitions).

When used herein the terms of sonata form is considered that this scheme was designed in the first half of the 19th century (see below) and can be transferred from there to restrictions on a composed work in 1769. - Note that this description and structure of sentences is to be understood as a suggestion. Depending on your view, other accruals and interpretations are possible.

First movement: Allegro

C major, 4/4-time, 196 cycles

The first theme is dominated by the brilliant, festive fanfare of the dominant wind. The thereby occurring sequence of three - on ( bar 2 ) or descending notes ( bar 4) plays an important role ( " three-note motif " ) in the further course of the movement. However, from the clock 7, the glorious music loses its momentum surprising:

"Before the music but really gets going, happens Strange: after only four-bar theme is sounded in Forte, put the strings after two about conducting bars on the dominant in the piano and build eleven clock cycles a sound surface, which c- minor modulated by a-flat major and back to G major - quite unusual in such an early stage of the musical process - and the first violin an indecisive action to set the tone g circling melody of thoughtful dark character spins, which in a fermata on the dominant comes to a standstill. This sentence beginning acts as a " leader ", as if once the possibilities for the end of the set to be tested in the. "

In a renewed effort Haydn repeats the theme. This time it does not run on tight, but continues as Forte block chords, with the first violin and tremolo in the second violin continues its festive - forward-moving character. After changing to the dominant G major and a short break closes clock 30 on a longer passage in the violins and bass two rhythmic motives ' (in the bass with auftaktiger triplet, both motives are related to the three- note motif from the beginning of a sentence ). Even the quiet second theme from bar 42 with ausholendem gesture is related to the three- note motif. The theme is completed fallacy like to E minor. Shortly after, the orchestra breaks again forte rid of fünftaktiges unison, followed by a set in the strings descending piano motif, " which acts like a swan song for the second subject, as if its been withheld second part. " Repeated The noisy end section from bar 64 first a three-bar phrase with triplet, followed rapidly - scale virtuoso runs in the violins, the rhythmic motif of the violins from bar 30 returns, and finally a unison, which is similar to the bass line from clock 30.

The implementation does not begin as usual with the first theme in the dominant, but as a variant of the halting piano string passage from the beginning of a sentence: the minor turbidity is omitted, the music changes to E major and comes to rest there in the short term. In bar 95 includes a variant of unison block, which was followed by the second theme in the exposition on. A special feature of this section contains two crescendos. Then, the three-note motif is processed intensively until only the grinder -like opening is left. Also, the prelude is submitted by the upward and downward guidance as well as " up the display " on thirty-second of an intense processing. This passage (bars 114 to 119 ) is reminiscent of the section from the first movement of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Symphony KV 551, which is also in C major (there: clock 171-179 ). From bar 128 the intensity of the music that falls into the piano, from, " as it dissolves, and opens dominant table with a general pause to the recapitulation ."

In the recapitulation at measure 134, the first theme goes without repetition in the Forte - block with chords, and tremolo on, otherwise it 's down to details like the exposure structured ( the unison after the second theme is extended by one clock and strengthened to fortissimo and the subsequent piano passage is shortened by one clock ). Exposure and development and recapitulation are repeated.

Second movement: Adagio

F Major, 6/8-measure, 89 cycles

The Adagio is one of Haydn's slow movements longest. The first, somewhat verschörkelte piano theme is presented by the strings, the violins are muted (which occurs in several slow movements of Haydn's symphonies that time). It is upbeat, periodically structured and contains a triple tone repetition. In the first half of the topics solo oboe playing in the dialogue with the strings. An emerging horn solo leads to the second theme, which is related by his tone repetition, the prelude and also the periodic structure with the first. The first violin vocal leader, the 2nd violin accompanied by running triplets. In the second half of the topics wind comes added. In the final section, the previously expanded concomitantly played by the second violin triplets, which provides for an increasing flow of movement dominate. This is, however, interrupted by a recitative - zörgernden passage with chromaticism and fallacies.

The rather short implementation processes the first half of the second theme and has elements of several keys. The entrance of the recapitulation Haydn particularly designed: After the music has reached the dominant A major, she suddenly stops; the oboes and horns bring the A in the octave pianissimo, then suddenly play the horns again A as a third of the tonic F major and intone her solo from the transition to the second theme. " This all sounds amazingly romantic. "

The recapitulation is similar to the exposure structured, but shortened: The first theme is about the same in the second half of the second theme. Exposure and development and recapitulation are repeated.

Third set: Menuet. Allegretto

C major, 3/4-time, with Trio 84 cycles

The Minuet with folk tone " retains the unusually large dimensions in which are characteristic of the whole symphony. " It is characterized by two - to threefold tone repetition and numerous Pralltriller and mostly held forte. The beginning of the main theme is derived from the second half of the second theme of the Adagio. The first part remains largely in the tonic C major, the beginning of the second part will change to A major and D minor, where a phrase is repeated four times vigorously. At the end of the second part interrupts " a warlike fanfare in octaves " fortissimo the popular voice, to which, however, still followed by a postscript in Streicher piano.

The trio is in C minor and serious character contrasts with his strong for festive folk - minuet. The main motif, a signal- like unison reputation with Pralltriller is derived from the initial phrase of the minuet. The second part leads initially the unison figure in the descending line continues with ganztaktigem trill:

" A trill in all the strings and for the duration of a whole bar gives the whole the macabre air of a set in music courtly " Scratch foot, " as we used to take the deep bow - and the brass silenced completely - apart from a deep -held sound after trilling " scrape ", as if they wanted to bow deeply. "

The trio includes " with an extended chromatic progression, which returns to the tonic at the last minute again. "

Fourth movement: Allegro

C major, 4/4-time ( alla breve ), 160 cycles

The rapid movement begins with the main theme on ascending and descending scale runs. The " stormy then rushing quaver movement " dominated almost whole sentence: She is in various forms for the following Forte block embossing, stretches to the end of the exposure - interrupted by an extended pedal point on D, after which the dominant G major established.

The implementation begins ( as in the first sentence ) is not the main theme in the dominant to, but varies with the passage of the extended pedal point under change to C minor. Surprising, then, is the main theme in the tonic one ( "false recapitulation " or " immediate Reprise" ). After a few bars, however, Haydn changes in distant keys, so that the listener becomes clear that the recapitulation has not yet begun.

The actual recapitulation at measure 113 is shorter than the exposure: The main theme is about the same in the extended pedal point. Exposure and development and recapitulation are repeated.

References, notes

Web links, notes

  • Information for the 48th symphony of Haydn Hörmöglichkeit including several recordings from the project " Haydn 100 & 7 " of the Haydn Festival Eisenstadt
  • Joseph Haydn: Symphony no. 48 in C major. ( Philharmonia No. 748 ). Universal Edition, Vienna 1966 series. Howard Chandler Robbins Landon (ed.): Critical Edition of the Complete Symphonies ( pocket score ).
  • Joseph Haydn: Symphony No.. 48 C major ( Maria Theresa). Ernst Eulenburg no. 517, London / Zurich ( pocket score ).
  • Thread the Symphony No. 48 by Joseph Haydn, call May 31, 2013
  • Symphony No. 48 by Joseph Haydn: notes and audio files in the International Music Score Library Project.