Symphony No. 5 (Mozart)

The Symphony in B flat major Köchelverzeichnis 22 is a classical symphony in three movements by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart from 1765. According to the counting of the old Mozart Edition wears the number 5


Actually, the Mozarts had wanted to travel after their stay in England directly to Paris. Due to earnestly request of a Dutch ambassador, and probably also due to good income prospects, Leopold Mozart was but then get them to make a detour to The Hague. Here, the Mozart of September 1765 held on until April 1766 and gave various concerts. In addition to the London Symphonies (KV 16, KV 19, KV 19, KV 19b) was also CR 22 ​​listed that Mozart composed in December 1765 in The Hague. The occasion was probably a concert on January 22 in 1766., The term " symphony" was not yet as strong as defined today, for example, KV 22 was announced in the pamphlets of 1765 Overture.

" On September 10 they reached after great exertions finally the Hague, a quartered at a watchmaker and gave two days later, even the first concert at the court of the Netherlands, but without Nannerl: She collapsed after arrival and could no longer occur. She was doing very badly. The doctors were puzzled: Was it the pox? No, apparently she was suffering from typhoid fever. Leopold Mozart: "I saw my daughter lose weight daily; she had now nothing more than skin and bones ... The doctor himself had no hope. " father and mother tried in long conversations to prepare the patient for death, they " to the vanity of this world, from the blissful death of children " convince, " because now the wolf Gangl in the other room, talking to his music. " He was not allowed because of the risk of infection to the nurse and composed in this period his third symphony. "

A member of the Amsterdam Stadsschouwburg Orchestra, Georg Anton Kreusser has probably heard or even 22 KV listed, because he used the beginning of the first sentence of his own Symphony in E flat major, Op 5 No 4

About the Music

Instrumentation: two oboes, two horns in B, two violins, viola, cello, double bass. To reinforce the bass voice was customary, (if present in the orchestra ) without special notation to use bassoon and a harpsichord.

Performance time: about 8 minutes.

In the terms used here based on the sonata form is considered that this scheme was designed in the first half of the 19th century (see below) and therefore only with restrictions, this symphony can be transferred. Sentences 1 and 2 correspond more the two-part form, in which the second part of the sentence is considered as a modified run of the first ( " exposure "). - Note that this description and structure of sentences is to be understood as a suggestion. Depending on your view, other accruals and interpretations are possible.

First movement: Allegro

B flat major, 4/4-time, 98 cycles

The opening theme is characterized by owning, accents, trills and exercise in sixths. It is backed by a 14 -measure pedal point on B, which was disseminated around 1765, well over Western Europe ( in the style of the Mannheim Symphony Orchestra ). After the brief crescendo to forte and chords, begins in the dominant F major a passage which by accents and breaks slows the movement was reaching a bit. From bar 23 the movement then flows back in the form of a dialogue between the violins. In the following section the tremolo of the violins is backed by a bass movement. Such a structure can be found, for example, in KV 19, KV 43 and KV 73

After the final group of clock 39 to 46, which again takes up the motif of the first theme, the second part of the sentence closes, which leads the introductory theme by F minor and C minor. In the reconciliation part to the second theme (bars 65 to 72 ) changes Mozart effective from minor to major. The second theme is then in clock 73 in B flat major one. The further course substantially corresponding to the first part.

Second movement: Andante

G Minor, 2/4-cycle, 57 cycles

For the set of the following structure is proposed:

  • A section (bars 1 - 10 ): symmetrically structured motif in G minor ( four bars which are repeated once ) with fifth, followed by two cycles with sloping unison ( " sigh ");
  • B section (bars 10-21 ): sequenced, new motif with a characteristic upbeat ( sixth, fifth, fourth ) with offset inserts of the two violins; Change from C minor to B - flat major;
  • A section (bars 22 - 31 ): As above, but now in the Tonikaparallele B Major, again end with a short, falling in unison;
  • 'B' section (bars 31-37 ): small section with variation of the motive of the B section, also ends with a short falling unison B flat major;
  • A section (bars 38 - 45 ): as clock 1 - 10, but without unison end, G minor;
  • B section (bars 45-50 ): as clock 10-15, in C minor;
  • C- section or coda (bars 51-57 ): exhale the sentence with change of C minor and G minor.

Neal Zaslaw highlights the " amazing intensity of musical gestures " show, referring to probably the " melancholic" chromaticism and the structure imitations appearing in the B- parts.

Third movement: Allegro molto

B flat major, 3/8-time, 97 cycles

This pretty stormy finale in rondo form has the then typical " Clean Sweep " character and thus forms a contrast to the somber tone of the second set.

  • A Part: 1-20 clock: chorus, simple melody based on a B- major triad and strong B- flat major chords. The melody is repeated from cycle 11-20. It recalls the introduction of the Quartet " Signore, the fuori son già i Suonatori ." From the finale of the second act of The Marriage of Figaro
  • B part: 21-30 cycle: short section with the character of an interlude.
  • A- part: clock 31-50.
  • C- part: 51-66 cycle: short section with upward - downward movement first in C, then F is also more between game -like character.
  • A- part: clock 67-86.
  • Coda: 87-97 clock: two suspensions on it ( dominant) in the piano that are resolved by Unison runs in B ( tonic).

References, notes

Web links, notes

  • Symphony in B flat major, K. 22: Score and critical report in the New Mozart Edition
  • Symphony No.. 5: notes and audio files in the International Music Score Library Project.
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Sinfonia bem in it, K. 22 PR 626, Ricordi publishing house, Milan 1979 ( pocket score ).