Symphony No. 7 (Haydn)

The Symphony in C major, Hoboken directory I: 7 Joseph Haydn composed in 1761 during his tenure as Vice - Kapellmeister to Prince Paul II Anton Esterházy de Galantha. She wears the leg imitate " Le midi" ( Noon ).


Joseph Haydn wrote the Symphony No. 7 in C major " Le midi" ( Noon ) in 1761, probably together with Symphonies No. 6 " Le Matin " ( The Morning ) and No. 8 " Le soir " ( The Evening ). It is the only continuous cycle within his symphonies; he became known as " The times of the day ." More about the history and form of these symphonies see in the Symphony No. 6

Haydn has the autograph of the Symphony entitled " Le Midi. In Nomine Domini. Giuseppe Haydn 761 ", so has the work as only the " time of day symphonies " a title and a year ( 1761) on.

Regarding the structure, the movements of the symphony No. 7 are not clear in a scheme to classify. The themes and motifs are hardly processed. So there are intermediate forms on the way from the old suite to new forms such as the sonata form, are used by the alternative, in the following partial terms. - The following description and classification is to be understood as a suggestion. Depending on your view, other accruals and interpretations are possible.

About the Music

Instrumentation: two flutes, two oboes, bassoon, two horns, two violins, two violins Ripieno, viola, cello solo, cello Ripieno, double bass. The role of the harpsichord is assessed differently, it was probably not used in the orchestra of the Esterhazy Palace. The "full" cast only occurs in the fifth set.

Performance time: approximately 22-27 minutes (depending on adherence to the prescribed repetitions)

First movement: Adagio - Allegro

Adagio: C major, 4/4-time, clock 1-10 The festive and solemn Adagio is characterized by its dotted rhythms and a guided in unison movement. Added to this is an ascending line oboe in measure 7/8. The introduction is reminiscent of a solemn French overture.

Allegro: C major, 3/4-time, clock 11-149

The movement begins in the style of the overture to a Neapolitan opera with the in -run tremolo, energetic unison melody line (violins: Sixteenth, other strings and bassoon: eighth ), the interval has jumps to the octave. The six-bar theme is repeated varies, with the first violin plays against vote -like runs. Now connect additional sections on, each one the subject is also available: The passage from bar 24 is formed by the first occurrence of the two solo violins and solo cello ( with parallel guided bassoon ) is determined ( motif 2 ), followed by oboe motif 3, which established the dominant G major, the motif Tonwiederholungs 4 and the closing theme of the first part of the sentence ( Scene 5) with continuous semiquavers.

The middle section starts with the new 6 trill motif in the piano, which is repeated after a Forte Drawer with rapid unison runs upwards as a variant. From bar 76 then closes again at a virtuoso passage for both solo violins ( alternately ) that ends in E major chord after the fortissimo outburst in measure 83/84. Now begins in C major unexpected turn a new cadenza- like portion of a motif goes from bar 91 2 similar chromatic figure and virtuosic runs the first solo violin in a piano - note recapitulation in E major. The actual recapitulation is then suddenly a clock in 105 in the familiar C major. Before the solo section for violins and cello, analog clock 26 ( Scene 2) occurs, but the other piano motif 7 is turned on with detached quaver movement in C minor (bars 111-117 ). The rest of the recapitulation corresponds to the end of the exposure. Exposure as well as middle and recapitulation are each repeated.

Possible outline can you look at the set thinking composed of several sections, which are characterized respectively by motifs or groups of instruments so.

Second sentence: Recit. adagio

Start: C minor, End: B minor; 4/4-time, 29 cycles

The movement reminds his abrupt mood swings and unusual tonal progression of C minor g- minor to B minor to a dramatic " accompanied recitative " of opera. Haydn piano begins the sentence with broken chords in C minor, A flat major and E flat major of the 1st violin and whispering, even by running accompanying figures of the second violin. The rest of the accompaniment is kept extremely sparse. After a D major Septnonakkord Forte the first solo violin begins at measure 6 with its "talking" lecture, are turned on in the tutti sections. It is also a change from Adagio to Allegro and again takes place back.

In the " Biographical news " of the landscape painter Albert Christoph says this about his visit to Haydn on May 27, 1806:

" For a long time I had set before me, asking Haydn to what extent the claim (which I had heard several times and even read) was true that he was trying to edit some selbstbeliebige literal task in its instrumentation? (...) "Rarely ," Haydn said. "I was usually in the instrumental music of my only musical imagination free rein throughout. Only an exception occurs to me now at, where I have a conversation between God and a reckless sinners chose in the Adagio of a symphony on the subject. "- On a later occasion the speech fell again to this Adagio and Haydn said he had the deity always the love and kindness expressed. I asked Haydn to determine me the theme of the Adagio, because it would have interest to most readers. But he could not remember in which symphony it finds it. "

Third movement: Adagio

G Major, 4/4-time, 53 cycles

The second Adagio, a " soft dissolved aria" in contrast to the dramatic recitative of the last adagio, together with the previous one " scene " (such as recitative and aria of the opera). Cast ( first enter the flutes on ) and attack the character of the movement popular in Baroque music type of pastoral scenes on.

The sentence is structured so that between some main motives variable, virtuosic sections are connected for the solo violin and the cello solo in which the musicians - as was customary - also had some room for improvisation. The main motives can distinguish:

  • Measure 1: Dialogue of fluid movement in the violins and the flutes ( tonic G major ), long out -preserved D of the first solo violin leads to the first solo section from bar 3,
  • Clock 11/12: Scene with repeated notes, which runs through the instruments ( dominant D major ),
  • Clock 14-16: Final Scene with unison figure in the violins and flutes, finished the first section of the movement in D major.

From bar 17 is followed by the second section, which is a variant of the first, in particular, differ lying between the main motives solo passages. Of note is the unusually long, " great common cadenza " for solo violin and cello (cycle 36-51 ). This occurs - as in the preceding sentence - a change of pace from Adagio to Allegro and back on.

Fourth sentence: Menuetto

C major, 3/4-time, with Trio 54 cycles

The minuet is a type of " old-style, solemn and dignified. " It starts with the downbeat Oktavschritt upward, dotted rhythms, trills and ascending Dreiklangsfanfare. The courtly character is interrupted by a " gala lower " piano figure with dabbing eighths from bar 9. In the first part of the minuet and the beginning of the second part of the Horn Trio has short solo motifs. As in the other two symphonies of the cycle, the trio is characterized by the use of a solo double bass (or violone ).

Fifth set: Allegro

C major, 2/4-cycle, 131 cycles

Similar to the first set, and the Allegro can be thought composed of several sections, which are characterized respectively by motives or instrumental groups. The opening motif is played by two solo violins in parallel. It is based on a broken C- major triad down with trills, which is answered by a clock forte unison tutti. Up to 10 clock a short " dialogue" between solo and tutti instruments takes place. The flute then accesses the sixteenth-note figure from the previous Tutti and spins her away as a solo passage imitated from bar 15 from Forte tutti. This is followed by another piano passage for flute, also with ( from the previous motif derived ) virtuoso runs over an octave, join in the from bar 26 both solo violins. After the general break with fermata in measure 37 begins the first solo violin in the piano with a proposal - phrase, which turns abruptly in running motion forte unison. The first main section of the movement (exposure) ends in measure 52 and is repeated.

In relation to the first set, the following section is similar (cycle 53-84 ) in that more of a bushing, taken up in motifs of exposure and be "processed": The " initial motif ", which runs over an octave, and the proposal - phrase. Here Haydn changes, inter alia, to A major (bars 63 ff ) and bring here even a small new motive in the oboe. The recapitulation (bars 85 ff ) is similar to the exposure structured. Development and recapitulation are repeated.

References, notes

Web links, notes

  • Recordings and information on Symphony No. 7 by Joseph Haydn by the project " Haydn 100 & 7 " of the Haydn Festival Eisenstadt
  • Joseph Haydn: Symphony No. 7 C major " Le midi". Ernst Eulenburg Ltd.. No. 513, London / Mainz undated, 52 pp. ( pocket score ).
  • Joseph Haydn: Symphony No. 7 C major " Le midi". Philharmonia Band No. 707, Vienna without year. Series: Howard Chandler Robbins Landon (ed.): Critical Edition of the Complete Symphonies by Joseph Haydn. ( Pocket score )
  • Symphony No. 7 by Joseph Haydn: notes and audio files in the International Music Score Library Project.