Symphony No. 7 (Mozart)

The Symphony in D major Köchelverzeichnis 45 composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1768 in Vienna. After the Old Mozart Edition, the symphony has the number 7


The autograph of the work bears the inscription "16 Jenner " by Leopold Mozart; probably Wolfgang has completed the work on that day. There is nothing about a public concert of Mozart at this time is narrated the composition occasion was probably one of the many private performances; the first performance opportunity was probably a Fast concert at the " Russian envoy Prince of Gallitzin " (Letter from Leopold Mozart). In these concerts, it was customary that at the beginning and at the end of symphonies were played.

For the composed from April to July 1768 opera La finta semplice Köchelverzeichnis (KV) 51 Mozart has fashioned the symphony for Overture. The Minuet fell away, as drums and trumpets, but he added flutes and ( obligatory ) Bassoons ( Andante only flutes; KV at 45 bassoons are under the previous performance practice optional for bass reinforcement, see below). The expansion can be explained by the fact that the Vienna orchestra had more opportunities than the smaller private orchestra, was composed for Mozart so far. The deletion of trumpets and drums, however, is amazing; it is possibly connected with the fact that Mozart considered for a comic opera as unnecessary.

Hermann Abert writes on the relationship between KV 45 and KV 51 of the overture: " The Overture shows a considerable advance, alone already the D Major Symphony from January 16, 1768 ( K.-V. 45) compared with which they has common themes and processing up to the omitted minuet. But the instrumental garb of the piece has become rich, and, what is most important, the added wind does not serve merely to reinforce, but talk sometimes quite independent language and bring about sound effects that put the old thoughts in a new light ( ... ). "

For a comparison between the two versions has the recording with the Academy of Ancient Music.

As a characteristic of the Viennese symphonies are KV 43, KV 45, KV 45b, KV 48 and KV 76 in four movements with a minuet as the third movement.

About the Music

Instrumentation: two oboes, two horns in D, two trumpets in D, timpani, two violins, viola, cello, double bass. In contemporary orchestras, it was also common, even without separate listing bassoon and harpsichord (if available in the orchestra ) to use to enhance the bass voice.

Duration: about 11 minutes.

In the terms used here based on the sonata form is considered that this scheme was designed in the first half of the 19th century (see below) and can be transmitted from hence composed only with restrictions on a 1768 work. Sentences 1, 2 and 4 correspond more the two-part form, in which the second part of the sentence is considered as a modified run of the first ( " exposure "). - Note that this description and structure of sentences is to be understood as a suggestion. Depending on your view, other accruals and interpretations are possible.

First movement: Molto allegro

D major, 4/4-time, 92 cycles

The set opens forte as a fanfare of three D major chords in full orchestra ( tutti ). A unique first subject can not be determined. After five cycles with continuous eighth notes ( based on cracked D major - chord ) in the piano several small, usually repeated once as a variant motifs with runs, proposal phrases and tremolo lined. Volker Scherliess (2005) speaks of a " follow- brilliant thematic inventions. " This motif from bar 17 in the dominant A major, which is announced by previous chord strumming on D and a quarter rest and played by the strings in the piano, reminiscent of doing a " second theme ". The section from clock 24 to 27 is characterized by sustained wind chords, tremolo in the strings and a vein-like movement in the bass. Structurally similar passages are also found in other head sets earlier symphonies of Mozart (eg KV 16, KV 19, KV 19, KV 22, KV 43, at the "Alte Lambach " Symphony, K. 45a even to the beginning of the sentence ).

The section of clock 35-44, interpretable as the final group of the first part of the sentence, contrasts with the previous events by its rather quiet character with several Provision, the first of which is endured long; only the viola plays a continuous tone repetition in eighths to A. Hermann Abert speaks here of a " strangely silent and pensive foreign guest who is in the final group (...) suddenly the noisy banquet table sets. "

The beginning of the second part of the sentence (cycle 45-55 ) as a main motif a broken chord down with syncope in the first violin, backed by chords of the wind instruments and the rest of tremolo strings. It is characteristic of the already known exchange of clock 7 ff of forte and piano. About B minor, E minor and A major Mozart returns to the tonic D major. In D major starts in cycle 56, the " Reprise" with a variant of the broken Akkordmelodik from the beginning. It is mainly structured in a similar exposure.

Overall, the rate through the lack of repetitions, the number of runs, tremolo passages and also by its beginning with the three chords, has an overture -like character. Maybe that's why he offered himself for processing as a " right" Overture to KV 51 (the transitions from "Symphony " and " Overture " were at that time but fluid anyway ).

Second movement: Andante

G Major, 4/4-time ( alla breve ), 24 cycles, only strings

The set minimalist constructed is characterized by its two-bar motif in the first violin and the permanent continuous triplet in the second violin. It is divided by a double slash at the end of bar 8 in two parts that are each repeated once. The three-part main motive begins as deep, stressed half note followed by a short upward movement in broken thirds in the piano. The final phrase of the subject changes in the course of the movement.

In the first part of the sentence the main subject is presented in G major, the final phrase consists of a continuous downward G- major triad with dotted rhythms, the first note is emphasized. From the end of the second cycle, the first violin is true in the triplet of the second violin with a. Then the first four bars are repeated easily changed.

The second part ( bar 9 ff ) starts with the main subject on accented Gis, which dissolves in the final phrase about owning by a minor. The suspensions of the final phrase " become independent " then for two cycles before from bar 13 has a similar structure as in measure 9 follows, but now with F # as the beginning of the main subject with resolution to G major. From bar 17 there is a change of the main subject between C major ( subdominant ) and G major with sanglicher, arc-like motion remote district as a final flourish.

As the melody of the main subject progresses mainly in two levels above the triplet, provides for a performance, the question of whether the resulting to be "two- against - three " construed as opposing rhythms or the two melody notes to the Triolenfluss ( " long-short " have to adapt ). As in the edited version (KV 51), the melody notes are notated as dotted eighth and sixteenth notes, it can be assumed obvious by Volker Scherliess (2005), that here the fit to be made on the Triolenfluss Let ( similar problem in the triplets and dotted rhythms in fourth set of KV 45, clock 41 ff s, u ).

Third movement: Minuet

D major, 3/4-time, 30 cycles ( Minuet ), 20 cycles (Trio )

The minuet is characterized by its falling, stressed fourths and fifths, and the responding triplet. In the second part provide syncopation and dotted rhythms for loosening.

The Trio in G major is kept only for strings. The quiet - pensive melody in the piano with sheet-like neighborhood movement has emphasized several suspensions.

Fourth proposition: Molto Allegro

D major, 2/4-cycle, 106 cycles

The set consists of several designs, which are usually repeated like an echo in the piano. The first motif (or the main melody ) consists of a unison figure with dotted rhythm that is forte presented by the whole orchestra ( bars 1-4 ). Nachsatzartig answer the violins with four bars of a triplet figure in the piano. Both passages (along interpretable as the main theme ) are then repeated (bars 9-16 ). This main theme is based on an oral tradition melody, similar to in the introduction to Leopold Mozart's "Musical Sleigh Ride " is found and in 1800 in London under the title " Del Caro 's Hornpipe " was very popular. It then close several small motifs with trills, triplets and a boosted bass figure in dotted rhythm on Triolentremolo at ( clock 41-51, see also Note to the second set ) to. The first section ( " exposure " ) ends in measure 51 in the dominant A major.

The " implementation " begins with the main theme in A major, but which is modulated by B minor on the second pass. Clock 68 ff switch to the bass line of clock 33 et seq of B major to A major. After a vigorous repetitive oscillating movement of triplets begins in measure 80, the " Reprise" with the design of clock 25 et seq It follows the bass line with dotted rhythm analog clock 33 ff " implementation " and " Reprise" are wiederholt.ref name = " repeat "/> the version of the opera overture (KV 51 ), however, has no repetitions and immediately goes to the initiation of the opera chorus.

Wolfgang Gersthoferstrasse (2007) points out similarities of the sentence with the first sentence of Johann Christian Bach Symphony op 3.

References, notes