Tamarisk ( Tamarix gallica )
The tamarisk ( Tamaricaceae ) are a family of plants in the order of the clove -like ( Caryophyllales ) within the angiosperms. They occur ( coastlines, deserts and steppes ) in Europe, Asia and Africa in drylands. Some species are neophytes in arid areas of the world, such as USA, Mexico, Argentina and Australia. A few species are used as ornamental plants.
- 3.1 Notes and references
Habit and foliage leaves
They grow as an evergreen, rarely herbaceous plants or subshrubs, mostly as shrubs or small trees. If there are so-called rod bushes then take over the stem axis, the task of photosynthesis. They are sometimes halophytes and xerophytes most.
Their leaves are arranged opposite one another and spiral. The mostly small, scale-like ( erikoiden ) or small, simple leaves are sessile and fleshy or membranous. Sometimes a stem extensive sheath is present. The leaf margin is smooth. On leaves salt glands are present. Their leaves often have multicellular glands that allow them to excrete salt. There are no stipules present. The stomata are usually anomocytisch or rarely paracytisch.
Inflorescences and flowers
The flowers are single ( Hololachne, Reaumuria ) or racemose, or paniculate inflorescences aged men without bracts together. The flowers are usually hermaphrodite or rarely unisexual. If the flowers are unisexual then the species dioecious getrenntgeschlechtig ( dioecious ). The radial symmetry flowers are usually four - to five - or rarely sechszählig with double perianth. The sepals are fused at their base at most. The fused more than at their base petals are usually white to pink. There are one or two circles, each with three or four stamens present, or sometimes there are 15 to 100 stamens. All stamens are fertile. The stamens are fused with the petals and fused with each other freely or at their base into bundles. The two-celled pollen grains usually have three, rarely two or four apertures and are COLPAT; the pollen surface is smooth. Most three or four ( rarely two or five) carpels are fused to a constant above, unilocular ovary. The ovary contains in parietal and basal placentation four to one hundred anatrope, bitegmische, weak crassinucellate ovules. In Myricaria no pen is available; in the other taxa are usually three to four (two to five) free or partially intergrown, long stylus available.
Fruit and seeds
The lokuliziden fruit capsules open with usually three to five flaps from the tip toward the base and usually contain many seeds. The seeds are hairy or have a long tail of long hair, contain sparse starchy endosperm and a well-educated, straight embryo.
Ingredients and sets of chromosomes
It can cyanidin, ellagic acid and be present on flavonols quercetin and / or kaempferol or tamarixin. The chromosome number x = number is usually 12 (rarely 11).
Within the order of Caryophyllales the Tamaricaceae are most closely related to the Frankeniaceae. Previously, both families were to order the Violales Lindl. provided. The Frankeniaceae with Tamaricaceae and Plumbaginaceae with Polygonaceae each form sister groups and these two sister groups together form a clade.
The first publication of the family name Tamaricaceae was in 1821 by Heinrich Friedrich Link in Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Regii Berolinensis Altera, 1, pp. 291 Often as First publication of the Friedrich Graf von Berchtold & Jan Svatopluk Presl or by Augustin François César Prouvençal de Saint -Hilaire named as Tamariscinae. A synonym for Tamaricaceae link is Reaumuriaceae Ehrenberg ex Lindl .. type genus Tamarix L. is.
The species of the genus Myrtama sometimes be incorporated either in Myricaria or Tamarix, and of Hololachna in Reaumuria.
In the family there are five genera with 90 to 120 species:
- Hololachna Ehrenb. , The only two species are widespread in Central Asia.
- Rispelsträucher ( Myricaria Desv, Syn. Tamaricaria & Qaiser Ali ): The approximately 13 species are widespread in Eurasia, of which there are ten in China. The center of diversity is the Qinhai -Tibet plateau and adjacent areas.
- Myrtama Ovcz. & Kinzik. Contains only one type: Myrtama elegans ( Royle ) Ovcz. & Kinzik. ( Syn: Myricaria elegans Royle, Tamaricaria elegans ( Royle ) Qaiser Ali & ): It comes in Pakistan, Kashmir and Tibet at altitudes of 6500 meters before.
- The Tamaricaceae in APWebsite family. (Section Description and systematics)
- Description of the family of Tamaricaceae at DELTA by L. Watson & MJ Dallwitz. ( Description section )
- Qiner Yang & John Gaskin: Tamaricaceae, pp. 58 - text Registered as printed work, In: Wu Zheng -yi, Peter H. Raven & Deyuan Hong (eds.): Flora of China, Volume 13 - Clusiaceae through Araliaceae, Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis, 2007. ISBN 978-1-930723-59-7 (Sections Description and systematics)
- Mohammad Qaiser: Tamaricaceae: Online at Tropicos.org of the Missouri Botanical Garden, In: Flora of Pakistan, Volume 141, 1982, Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
- John F. Gaskin, F. Ghahremani - Nejad, DY Zhang & Jason Paul Londo: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Volume 91, Issue 3, 2004: An overview of Frankeniaceae and Tamaricaceae using nuclear rDNA and plastid sequence data, In. pp. 401-409.