55.3550.75Koordinaten: 55 ° 21 ' N, 50 ° 45 ' E
Tatarstan ( officially the Republic of Tatarstan, Tatar Татарстан Республикасы / Tatarstan Respublikasy or unofficially Татарстан Җөмһүриәте / Tatarstan Dschömhüriäte, Russian Республика Татарстан / Respublika Tatarstan; German and Tatarstan ) is an autonomous republic in the eastern part of European Russia. Tatarstan is the most populous of the autonomous republics of Russia and is regarded as particularly independent.
The term Tatarstan came only in 19-20. Century on. The older term Tartary designated a much larger space.
Tatarstan is situated west of the Ural Mountains in the East European plain at the confluence of the Volga and Kama, which is broadened here seeartig by the Kuibyshev reservoir. The maximum north -south extension is 290 km, the maximum east-west distance 460 km. Tatarstan is bordered by eight regions of the Russian Federation: the north by the Oblast Kirov, in the northeast of Udmurtia, on the east by Bashkortostan, to the south by the Orenburg Oblast, Samara Oblast, Ulyanovsk Oblast, on the west by Chuvashia and northwest of Mari El.
18 percent of the area is covered by forests, which consist predominantly of deciduous varieties such as oak, linden or birch. Coniferous forests include pine and fir. The Republic of Tatarstan also has large water resources. The river network form next to the Volga and the Kama, among others, the Belaya, the Vyatka, the Sviyaga that Mjoscha that Schischma, the Ik, the Toima, the Isch, the Stepnoj Saj. In total there are 3000 rivers. The inland water area to 4,400 square kilometers or 6.4 per cent of the Republic 's territory. On the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan is a large part of the largest artificial lake in Europe, the Kuibyshev reservoir with a volume of 6450 km ².
The local fauna represented by 430 species of vertebrates. The climate is temperate - continental, with warm -lasting, sometimes hot and arid summers and moderately cold winters. The average temperature in January is -14 ° C, in July 19 ° C. The frost period lasts from mid- November to early April. The annual average rainfall is 430 to 500 mm.
The Republic of Tatarstan is rich in mineral resources, oil is the main raw material deposits ( delivery 1999: 26.34 million metric tons). On the territory of the Republic, there are also plaster (total reserves amount to 72 million tons ), bitumen oil ( 12.5 billion tons of proven reserves ), peat, brick clay ( 73.5 million cubic meters ) of limestone and dolomite. In the southwest of Tatarstan there are deposits of oil shale.
Today, the population of Tatarstan is 3.786 million. In the 2010 census, the Tatars accounted for just over half the population. Not quite 40 % of the population are Russians. Another significant ethnic group are the Chuvash. Larger nationalities within the Republic are also the Udmurt, Mordvins, Mari, Ukrainians and Bashkirs.
The Tatars are a Turkic people that came to the old days with the invasion of the Mongols in Russia. Even after the end of Mongol rule, they remained in the country. As late as 1990, the proportion of Tatars in the population of Tatarstan ( Tatar ASSR ), only about 48.5 %, but it rises slightly due to the higher birth rate among ethnic Tatar population shares. Official languages in Tatarstan, the Russian and the Tatar language. The latter is written with both the Cyrillic and also with the Latin alphabet. Officially, however, only the Cyrillic spelling of the Tatar language.
The two most widespread religions in the Republic of Tatarstan are Islam and Russian Orthodox Christianity. Sunni Islam has been recognized by the Volga Bulgars 922 as an official religion. The Tatar capital Kazan is the center of Islam in Russia. The Tatars are committed predominantly ( 60 percent) to Sunni Islam or are atheists. A minority of them (1.6 percent), the Kriaschen ( " baptized " ), Orthodox Christians, and 1 percent of Tatars (those in Siberia) are followers of traditional Tengriasm.
The Orthodox Church joined the mid-16th century after the conquest of the Kazan Khanate by the Russian Tsardom in appearance. At that profess religion besides the baptized Tatars the Russians, Chuvash, Mari, Udmurt and Mordvins. There are small churches that belong to other branches of Christianity: Altorthodoxe, Catholics, Lutherans and Baptists. In addition, followers of the Jewish religion and Buddhism are present in insignificant numbers.
The colonization of the territory of Tatarstan began in the Palaeolithic period, about 100,000 years ago. The first state, the Kingdom of the Volga Bulgars originated around the year 900 AD In the year 922, Islam is the state religion, making the Volga Bulgars Empire fell under the influence of the Arab Caliphate. After a stubborn resistance against the Mongol invasions in 1236 became the sophisticated realm of the Volga Bulgars to the Golden Horde.
Through internal disruption, the Horde disintegrated into semi-independent Emirates. On the territory of present-day Tatarstan in 1438 formed the Nachfolgekhanat Kazan. The relations between the Kazan Khanate and the nearby Moscow were warlike nature (see Moscow -Kazan Wars ). The Russian state has become stronger conquered finally under Ivan the Terrible, the Khanate. After the Russian conquest of the former ruling class was overthrown and the Khanate of Kazan fully integrated into the Russian federation. Islam as a religion, however, was tolerated, although the influence of Christianity grew because more and more Russians settled in what is now Tatarstan. Individual attempts to missionary work among the Tartars by the Russian Orthodox Church during the 19th century were largely unsuccessful. The Tatar merchants kept their economic importance especially in trade between Eastern Europe and the Muslim states of Central Asia under Russian rule. This Kazan was declared one of the most important industrial and cultural centers of Russia and 1708 to the center of the Kazan province.
1988 in Tatarstan Tatar center was formed to which advocated complete independence of the country and for a cultural unity of living in the country Tatars Bashkortostan, Chuvashia and Siberia.
While the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Tatarstan declared on 30 August 1990 sovereign republic, which was confirmed in 1992 by a referendum. In November of the same year the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan was adopted. The Federation concluded in 1994 signed the Treaty of Tatarstan, in contrast to most other republics of Russia are not in their original form, but agreed with the Russian central government special rights, which include an expanded economic autonomy among others. Only in 2000 the Republic of Tatarstan took over the provisions in force in the Russian Federation standards for delivery of revenue to the federal budget.
Culture and Education
The Republic has a very rich historical and cultural heritage. The concurrence of at least three cultures ( the turktatarischen, the Russian and Finno -Ugric ) and two religions ( Islam and Christianity ) defines the uniqueness of this region, the originality of their culture and values . On this basis, the entire Tatar culture developed in the other. The coat of arms of the Republic is called Aq Bars and goes back to the time of the Khanate.
Tatarstan has 12 professional theaters, including 7 in Kazan, a philharmonic, several State Orchestra (National Symphony Orchestra of the Republic of Tatarstan ), a number of publishing houses, 88 state museums, 5 National Parks, 1700 libraries, 170 newspapers and 35 magazines. Tatarstan has a very large educational tradition. In the Republic, there are 2434 general education schools and 30 universities ( including 16 state ), most universities are located in Kazan. Four of the Kazan universities ( the University of Economics and Finance Kazan, Lenin Kazan State University, the State Technological University of Kazan and the Technical Tupolev State University ) are among the 50 best universities in Russia. By decree of the President of the Republic of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan was founded on 30 September 1991.
Tatarstan is today a federation Republic of the Russian Federation, which enjoys certain privileges. Article 61.2 of the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan is set: " The Republic of Tatarstan is a sovereign state, subject of international law, which is associated with the Russian Federation by the Treaty on mutual transfer of powers and responsibilities ." Head of State of the Republic of Tatarstan is the President. This represents the Republic in international law, appoints and dismisses the representatives in foreign countries and in international organizations and concludes treaties with foreign states from. President Rustam Minnikhanov ( Tatar Рөстәм Нургали улы Миңнеханов / Röstäm Nurğäli Uli Miñnexanov ).
The State Council of the Republic of Tatarstan, the Parliament of the Republic of Tatarstan is the highest representative, legislative and controlling body of state power of the Republic of Tatarstan and consists of 130 people's deputies. They are elected by the citizens of the Republic of Tatarstan in general, direct, free, equal and secret ballot.
Moscow invested relatively generous in Tatarstan. The construction of the Metro Kazan was worn, for example, more than 50 percent - other cities have to take 80 percent themselves.
Tatarstan is one of the richest republics of the Russian Federation and can operate as an autonomous economic policy. Petroleum and natural gas deposits that are not yet developed in part, contribute to the richness of the Republic. In 2009, the Gross Regional Product (GDP ) amounted to 878 billion rubles - around 22 billion euros (2006: 620 billion rubles - around 15 billion euros ). The largest share of industrial production have: mining at 33.1 %; the production of vehicles and equipment ( aircraft - Kazan Aircraft Production Association and trucks - Kamaz) with 12.3%; chemical production with 11.9%; the petrochemical production with 9.4% and the production of energy, gas and water at about 9%. In Tatarstan, there is a special economic zone in Alabuga, several technology parks and industrial parks.
About half of the soil of the Republic is used for agriculture. The focus is on the cultivation of cereals and forage crops. In addition, cattle and fur farming are operated.
The road network is well developed, including the shipping on multiple rivers (including the Volga and Kama ) contributes. There are inland ports in the Kazan and Naberezhnye Chelny. In Tatarstan there are two international airports: the Kazan Airport ( with federal significance ) and the Begischewo airport, 19 kilometers from Nizhnekamsk, which is, however, only for the Republic of importance. The Bugulma airport ensures the inter-regional and local air traffic.
Small and medium enterprises account for 20% of gross domestic product, which is in the Russian scale, the highest percentage. According to the Russian Federal Tatarstan takes to Moscow in second place in economic development.
Administrative divisions and cities
The Republic of Tatarstan is divided into 42 Rajons and two urban districts. Urban districts make up the capital of the Republic and millions Kazan and Naberezhnye Chelny. Twelve other cities are considered to be cities of republican significance, but are subject to the associated Rajons, including Almetyevsk, Bugulma, Jelabuga, Leninogorsk, Nizhnekamsk, Selenodolsk and Tschistopol with more than 50,000 inhabitants. In total there are 22 towns in the Republic and 18 urban-type settlements.