Tauris (Russian: Таврия ) is the former name of the Crimea peninsula.
Long before the 8th century BC, when the Cimmerians settled on the territory of the Crimea, had settled the Tauri in the mountains and on the south coast of the Crimea, a warlike people, from whom the island its ancient name " Taurien " received. In the 5th century BC, Herodotus, the father of Greek historiography was referring to in the first record of the Crimea on this Taurien for which in Greek mythology, the name is used Tauris.
The area was until 1774 ruled by the Crimean Tatars finally since the Mongol invasion ( mid 13th century ); see Islam in Ukraine.
In 1783 also the Khanate of Crimea by Russia was annexed and converted into the colonization of New Russia region. The peninsula became part of the newly established area Taurien that after a temporary abolition in 1802 the province was Taurien. The name Crimea disappeared from the official parlance. Since Crimea Crimean Khanate for the stand, this designation was no longer desired. The run up to 1917 as government area was inhabited by about 1805 Siegerland colonists.
In the wake of the October Revolution in 1917 the existence of the government Taurien was initially interrupted. The area gained relative autonomy within the new Ukrainian state under the leadership of remaining on the island of Crimean Tatars in the years 1917/1918. The Soviet power was established in January 1918.
On October 18, 1921, the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic as part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic ( RSFSR ) was proclaimed. The Constitution adopted shortly thereafter emphasized the equality of all nationalities and declared both Russian and Crimean Tatar to official languages.
Stalin was preparing this development in the late 1920s to an end. He reduced the importance of the Crimean Tatar language in 1929 and limited the territorial autonomy of the region. About 40,000 Crimean Tatar families were arrested and deported to Siberia. 1941 Stalin allowed the roughly 50,000 Krimdeutschen sell mostly to Kazakhstan.
During the Second World War, the historical name lived under the occupation of the German Wehrmacht on again. The area was under a general district of Crimea ( sub-district Taurien ) from 1 September 1942 to October 23, 1943 the Reich Commissariat Ukraine. On October 23, was the reconquest Melitopols, the capital of the district, by the Red Army. Hitler was planning a " Gotenland " to connect the peninsula by Reichsautobahn with the kingdom and there to settle in South Tyrol ( see Option in South Tyrol). 1944, the entire peninsula was liberated from German troops, while also addressing the meantime again surfaced name " Tauris " disappeared again.