Television advertisement

TV advertising is any form of broadcasting of commercials on television.

  • 9.1 television advertising in Austria
  • 9.2 television advertising in Switzerland
  • 9.3 UK and Scandinavia
  • 9.4 France


Mass media (newspapers, magazines, cinemas, Internet) are excellent for promotional purposes because of their high circulation level; also radio and television advertising are classic. In addition to cinema and internet television for advertising purposes, the combination of acoustic with optical information; with the other advertising media is missing one of the criteria. That is the reason why the world on television advertising, a large proportion of advertising revenues is omitted ( in Germany: 21%). The dissemination of advertising messages is aimed at generating revenue arising from advertising. In the television advertising this revenue is the main source of revenue for commercial television and also play a major role in the public- service broadcasters. The revenue from television advertising crucially depend on the ratings of the media, so this has to make his TV so that it promotes the ratings. There is the right target group of importance due to the potential buyer, an extensive research is conducted on ratings and often adapted program schedules accordingly. Advertising is always seen by fewer viewers than the program surrounding it.


The first commercial was aired on commercial TV in the U.S. for a watch company. After the approval authority of the FCC NBC and CBS in New York had granted the first commercial television broadcasting licenses on July 1, 1941, already belonging to the NBC station WNBT sent on the afternoon of July 1, 1941 (now WNBC ) a first watch advertising. A Television Act allowed entry into force on 30 July 1954, the approval of the Commercial Television in Britain, whose radio and television is so far dominated by the public sector BBC. The first commercial will be released on September 22, 1955 for a toothpaste, the first private channel is there, the ITV company Associated Rediffusion - which sends her interrupted weekday program since September 22 in 1955 with advertising.

Founded in March 1924 Praesens film is in Switzerland as a pioneer of the advertising film. Your advertising films about famous Swiss brands were first shown in cinemas. As of February 1965 there were in Switzerland and television advertising. It avoids because of the so-called trilingual dialogue spots in which the actors like in the movie talk to each other. This audio dubbing into other languages ​​is prevented.

In Germany it was shown on November 3rd time in 1956 in the Bavarian radio advertising after the Broadcasting Council had agreed to the television advertising on 4 May 1956. In the broadcast between half and a 55- eight -second commercial for Persil was broadcast with Liesl Karlstadt and Beppo Brem. This was followed on 4 December 1956, the SFB. On 2 September 1958, the "West German television commercials GmbH (WWF) " as a 100% subsidiary of the WDR was founded with the purpose of marketing of advertising time in the early evening.

The construction phase of public television should be held in Germany as possible without fee increases so that expressly television advertising was intended as a second source of income in the founding of the ZDF in June 1961. The ZDF started on his second day of broadcasting, April 2, 1963 with television advertising.

The Federal Constitutional Court has approved this mixed financing of public television in October 1998. Then the mixed financing is not constitutionally excluded. The legislator must only note that the public broadcasting contemporary form of financing is the financing charges, and could not push through another for fulfilling the functions of adverse forms of financing in the background this. In § 13 Section 1 of the State Broadcasting Treaty is therefore clear that the primary funding source is the license fee. In 2011, the income from broadcasting advertising and sponsorship contributed to about 6 % of the total income of the country's broadcasters at.

In terms of net advertising revenue was 2011, the broadcaster recorded the largest advertising revenue in the media advertising market with € 3.981 billion, representing 21 % of total advertising revenue. Of this total, the private TV € 3.699 billion (market share: 93%), on ARD and ZDF € 283 million ( 7%). The amount of broadcast television advertising minutes decreased by 6.4% to € 1.79 million. According decline was as the number of television commercials of all detected broadcaster by 5.2% to € 3.6 million. The average commercial length remained as the year before 30 seconds - 2001 the figure was only 23 seconds in length.

Legal bases

Scope and content of television advertising are set out in the Broadcasting Treaty ( Interstate Broadcasting Agreement ). In § 2 para 2 Interstate Broadcasting Agreement No. 7 is primarily a legal definition of advertising included. After that is advertising "means any form of announcement carry on a trade, business, craft or profession, which is broadcast on the radio by a public or a private operator or a natural person, either for payment or for similar consideration or for self-promotion with the aim, the sale of goods or the provision of services, including immovable property, rights and obligations, in return for payment. " AdFree are service transmissions, Children ( § 7 para 1 Interstate Broadcasting Agreement ) and news programs, if they are less than 30 minutes ( § 7a, paragraph 3 Interstate Broadcasting Agreement ). Advertising bans are made in accordance with § 7 paragraph 3 and 7 RStV also for subliminal advertising and subliminal ( subliminal ) advertising. Movies excluding series, serials and documentaries as well as feature films and news programs may be used for each scheduled period of at least 30 minutes once interrupted by television advertising or teleshopping ( § 7 para 3 Interstate Broadcasting Agreement ). In public broadcasting is the television advertising time to a maximum of 20 minutes per working day on an annual average limits ( § 16 para 1 Interstate Broadcasting Agreement ), the third party programs must remain ad-free. Overall, the advertising may not exceed 20 % of the daily transmission time for advertising spots is 12 minutes per hour limited ( § 16 para 3 Interstate Broadcasting Agreement ). While the distribution of the commercials is unlimited with private broadcasters, the commercial breaks in the public sector providers must take place on weekdays 17-20 clock. The requirement that commercials must have a distance of 20 minutes at least, is omitted since the 13th Broadcasting Treaty Amendment. For tobacco and prescription drugs, there is a general ban on advertising on television.

The principle of separation of § 7 paragraph 3 Interstate Broadcasting Agreement calls for the strict separation of advertising and programming. It aims to ensure a comprehensive and truthful opinion and allow the viewer a visual and audible distinction to the program in order to avoid deception and confusion. Therefore, the individual commercials are separated by cartoons or still images with ARD and ZDF. Best known are the famous " Mainzelmännchen " that accompany the separation criterion, the commercial breaks. The private stations follow through optical / acoustic overlays the separation principle. Other bumpers gained great notoriety and create especially for children an incentive to watch a commercial break.


In Germany the traditional television advertising has made the public television started with advertising blocks so-called ( " television advertising "). Here are several commercials that are broadcast within a fixed broadcasting slot in one context and mostly embedded in an attractive program and must be broadcast between 17.00 und 20.00 clock clock. Block advertising is the basic form for the public and private broadcasting. The purpose of this regulation was to protect the program part of an excessive fragmentation by multiple commercial breaks with the result of the loss of connection for the viewer. From this principle was only deviated introduction of commercial television.

Since the media law the private broadcasters allowed liberal advertising opportunities to have the type and form to place commercials changed. It was modeled on the "commercial breaks" in the United States and Great Britain. This so-called commercial breaks consisting of at least a commercial within a program. It is inserted into a program, and this interrupts at least once. Most often, however, two or more series-connected spots within a consignment, which are however subject to legal restrictions. The distance between the advertising blocks must be at least 20 minutes. For shipments with " natural breaks " ( half-time in sports, between rounds in boxing ) commercial breaks is also permitted. Hinge Advertising in turn is a commercial break between an ending and a beginning mission.

The private television has several placement options introduced, some of which were adopted by the public broadcasters. You try so to respond to the zapping behavior of the crowd; In addition, you can skip commercials easily or cut out with programs such as MPlayer before the actual viewing of the consignment by timeshifting.

  • Countdown commercials are advertising that appears in the seconds counting down time when a program resumes.
  • Advertising in split-screen uses the technique of split-screen advertising and parallel continuation of the program.
  • In tandem spots there is a major spot with the central product statement, which a preparatory and hinführender on the main spot teaser spot and / or a firming Reminder - spot is in front of and adjusted. A tandem spot consists of two related elements within an advertising block, which are separated from each other by at least one commercial ( for another product ).
  • Flankers are placed before or after a broadcast commercials.

Product placement and sponsorship already put a link of editorial advertising dar.

Since advertising interrupts the program is to be considered for program planners, the problem of audience loyalty. By audience flow spectators could move to other channels and no longer able to return to the original station under the zapping. Because over 50 % of television viewers and radio listeners switch off as soon as advertising comes; only 9 % did not change the program.


The television also advertise in addition to their own programs through program instructions. This customer loyalty is to be achieved. Self-promotion is because of the large number of competitors important in order to make themselves distinguishable as a transmitter. Productions are advertised in some cases more than a month before the broadcast. Self-promotion is often also seen in the transmitters of actually largely ad-free pay TV. Program instructions in their own right are not considered as advertising.

Advertising Film Production

TV advertising is produced by specialized film production companies, advertising film productions so-called, on behalf of the manufacturer of the product to be advertised product. The conception accept advertising agencies, the creative implementation of free directors who are on a project basis offered by the commercial film productions and contracted. Part of the German advertising film productions in the section advertising the German Producers Alliance - Television & film ( before April 1, 2010: Association of German postal and Werbefilmproduzenten eV, VDW) represented.

Television advertising in Germany

In today's television landscape, both the public and private programs advertising; Duration and shape of the commercials and the interrupting advertising is regulated by the State Broadcasting Treaty.

The public broadcasters ARD and ZDF are funded in part through advertising. The primary funding source is the radio contribution, the license fee (§ 13 para 1 sentence 1 2nd clause Interstate Broadcasting Agreement ) has replaced in 2013. In contrast, the private stations that have the preponderance of their revenue through the rental of advertising time. While the private channel their shipments interrupt regularly for commercials, public service stations are subject to time limitations.

Figures on television advertising

Net sales of television advertising 2003 (2001) in million EUR

  • ARD: 141.13 ( 166.73 )
  • ZDF: 111.23 ( 147.77 )
  • RTL: 1152.40 ( 1274.50 )
  • RTL 2: 223.20 ( 255.10 )
  • Sat.1: 777.30 (858.00)
  • ProSieben: 700.80 ( 875.00 )
  • VOX: 230.40 ( 198.30 )

TV advertising minutes:

(Source: ZAW: Advertising in Germany )

Audience reception

The interruption of a broadcast through commercials leads to migration ( audience flow ), because over 50 % of television viewers and radio listeners switch off as soon as advertising comes; only 9 % did not change the program by zapping. To improve the audience flow transmitters are gone over the hinge commercials ( a commercial break between an ending and a beginning new show, often as a " countdown advertising") to replace almost entirely by commercial breaks ( commercial break during a broadcast ). The rule of migration through commercial break applies but not always. An attractive series can take it to be after the start interrupted by advertising because the audience interest prevents disconnection or return guarantees; the other hand, could not recover in a smaller transmitter from an early commercial break a lesser known series.

Television advertising in other European countries

Television advertising in Austria

  • Print media ( 57.9 %)
  • Internet (2.3%)
  • Cinema ( 0.5%)
  • Poster (7.4%)
  • Television ( 24.3%)
  • Radio ( 7.6%)

In the Austrian television is, both in the public ORF, as well as private TV channels ( ATV, Puls 4, Austria 9 TV) shown advertising. However, in respect of advertising on public television, Austrian legislation is more permissive than in Germany. In the ORF programs advertising may be sent throughout the day; also is handling it is not nearly as reticent as the German public programs. Only 43 minutes of advertising can be sent per day and transmitter. ORF may not be interrupted by commercial breaks his broadcasts, except those where the " dramaturgy " (Full text of the ORF Act ) permits (eg between two game halves at football matches, at the break of broadcast live concert performances, etc.) Recently, time it often happens that programs that normally were continuously transmitted to be aware designed in two parts with a short break in between to send additional advertising can.

Television advertising in Switzerland

Taking advantage of the Radio and Television Act (RTA ) in April 2007, newly regulated advertising freedoms an improved environment for the television advertising was born. The German advertising blocks disappeared at almost all stations. For the SRG program, the RTA allows a maximum of an interruption in programs that last longer than 90 minutes. For licensed programs and the advertising window similar rules apply as in Germany. This has consequences especially for the advertising window. New also approved the split-screen advertising is now in Switzerland - in the SRG, but only in the transmission of sporting events. Certain restrictions is subject to the advertising of alcoholic beverages. A ten -year 1997-2007 shows that television advertising in Switzerland was able to achieve significant growth. The number of commercials has tripled, the broadcast advertising time more than quadrupled.

Great Britain and Scandinavia

In many States, however, the separation between private and public channels is kept strictly. In the United Kingdom about the private channels rely solely on advertising revenue, while funding the BBC public only through fees. To date, the two television programs BBC1 and BBC2 have remained completely ad-free. In the Scandinavian countries, the public television programs are ad-free. In Sweden, for example television advertising was completely unknown to the approval of commercial television in the 1990s.


In France, France Télévisions from 2011 are subject to a ban on advertising, its implementation will not take place before 2014.