Temperate coniferous forest
A coniferous forest is a forest in the tree layer conifers are almost exclusively to be found.
Natural coniferous forests grow in the boreal zone in cold climates as boreal forests. In Central Europe, are now generally regarded coniferous forests in the highlands of the central mountain in the Alps, which have similar climate. In Western Europe the deciduous forest mainly of beech forest, higher ( 2000 m) rises up as the East and North ( 1000 to 1400 m).
Different views exist on the natural occurrence in the lowlands. In particularly dry areas of pine forest may represent the potential natural vegetation. This is, for example, in the dry warm areas of the Southwest of the USA, in South Western Europe or in the karst areas of the Balkans and the Alps the case. Chance can be very unfavorable positions natural coniferous sites in the lowlands represent ( north-facing slopes, cold air lakes)
The extensive pine and spruce forests in the lowlands of Central Europe and many forests in North America have been exclusively planted or supported by the people, as would be found there natural hand deciduous forest companies. They are usually the end of the 18th century have been created, as the newly emerged through the work of Cotta forestry should promote the reforestation of the then very low forest in Central Europe. Many soils were then ausgemagert by overexploitation and only offered the undemanding and resistant conifers sufficient opportunities ( history of forest in Central Europe). In the north of North America the valuable hardwood was more struck than softwood so that the conifers could spread. The forests were retained later, since softwood grows very quickly and just as quickly and brings profit. Meanwhile, however, uses a rethink and the most vulnerable and high-maintenance coniferous forests to mixed forests are re-educated ( forest conversion ) to be geplentert.
Rising gas in the air will make the forests in Europe, North America and Japan to create ( forest dieback ).
As a plant community coniferous forests are ecologically related to the grazing caused by replacement companies of conifers Gentiles. Also in bogs regularly grow conifers that can not form a forest in intact peatlands, however.