Thiruvananthapuram ( Malayalam തിരുവനന്തപുരം Tiruvanantapuram [ ˌ t̪iɾu ʋan̪an̪t̪əpuɾʌm ] ), formerly Trivandrum, is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala. It is located on the Malabar coast in the extreme south of India and has around 750,000 inhabitants ( 2011 census ). Thiruvananthapuram in 1750 the capital of the kingdom of Travancore and is since 1956 the capital of Kerala. It is the largest city in the state and a center of the IT industry and tourism. Major attractions are Thiruvananthapurams the Padmanabhaswamy Temple, which became known in 2011 through a spectacular treasure trove, the Puthen - Malika Palace, in the residence of the Maharaja of Travancore, and the Napier Museum.
- 4.1 Religion
- 4.2 language
- 4.3 Education and Science
- 4.4 Attractions
The name of the city
The name Thiruvananthapuram means in local language Malayalam "holy ( thiru ) city ( puram ) of Ananta ( Anantha ) ". He refers to the serpent Ananta ( Shesha ), on the in shape resting after the Hindu mythology, the god Vishnu as Padmanabha. Padmanabha Thiruvananthapuram has a family deity of the kings of Travancore and the main deity of the Padmanabhaswamy temple of particular importance. During the British colonial era, the English form of the name was Trivandrum. Since 1991, the official name is again Thiruvananthapuram, Trivandrum is the name but also still widespread.
Location and extent
Thiruvananthapuram lies on the Malabar coast in southern Kerala, near the southern tip of India. At the border of the neighboring state of Tamil Nadu, there are only about 30 kilometers, the distance to Cape Comorin, the southernmost point of the Indian subcontinent is 86 kilometers. Kochi, the second major population center of Kerala is situated about 200 kilometers north. Thiruvananthapuram is the administrative seat of the district of Thiruvananthapuram, the southern most district of Kerala.
The municipality Thiruvananthapuram ( Corporation of Thiruvananthapuram ) covers an area of 214.9 square kilometers. The urban area extends over seven hills in the hinterland of the coast of the Arabian Sea. The rivers Karamana and Killi flow through the urban area. Compared to other major Indian cities Thiruvananthapuram is landscaped generous.
In Thiruvananthapuram has a tropical climate. The temperatures range from 26.3 degrees Celsius in July and 28.9 degrees Celsius in April. The annual average temperature is 26.6 degrees Celsius. Main rainy season is during the summer monsoon from June to September in the months of May, November and December there will be rain. The remaining months are dry. Annually, fall 1696 mm rainfall.
For a long time Thiruvananthapuram developed relatively independently of the rest of Kerala. Thus, the city was dominated until the 10th century by the Ays, which were later replaced by the rulers of the Kingdom of Venad.
The modern history Thiruvananthapurams begins with the rise of King Marthanda Varma Travancores ( 1729-1758 ), heir to the ruler of Venad. Under his reign was Thiruvananthapuram capital of his empire. There followed a period of prosperity in which the city developed into a cultural and economic center. Although Travancore in 1795 virtually a British protectorate was, it remained formally independent. Thiruvananthapuram thus remained until the merger with Travancores Cochin in 1949, the capital.
Since 1956, Thiruvananthapuram is the capital of Kerala state.
The majority of the population are Hindus Thiruvananthapurams. There are also large minorities of Christians and Muslims, the percentage of Christians and Muslims in the total population but is lower than in other parts of Kerala. Among the urban population of the district of Thiruvananthapuram (Thiruvananthapuram and some smaller towns in the area ) make according to the 2001 census 71.1 % Hindus, Christians, Muslims 16.0% and 12.6% from.
Thiruvananthapuram being the bishop of various Christian denominations: the city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Trivandrum, the Großerzbistums Trivandrum the united with Rome Syro -Malankara Church of the Diocese of Trivandrum of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church of the Diocese of Thiruvananthapuram- Kollam the Mar Thoma Church and of the Diocese of the Anglican Church of southern Kerala South India.
In Thiruvananthapuram is mainly Malayalam, the main language spoken in Kerala. English is widely used as an educational and lingua franca. Besides Hindi and Tamil are spoken and understood by many people.
Education and Science
Since 1937, Thiruvananthapuram is the seat of the University of Kerala. Furthermore, there's a variety of higher education institutions, including the College of Engineering Trivandrum, one of the largest technical universities in India.
In addition, Thiruvananthapuram is the site of a number of research centers. The most important and best known being the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre ( VSSC ), with its 5600 employees is an essential part of the Indian space agency Indian Space Research Organisation. Other academic institutions are, among others:
- Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology
- Tropical and Botanical Research Institute
- Centre for Development Studies
- Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR )
- Electronics Research and Development Centre India (ER & DCI)
- Centre for Earth Science Studies
- Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management
- Central Fisheries Research Centre
- Padmanabhaswamy Temple
The 1733 built in the Dravidian style of Hindu temple is the main landmark of Thiruvananthapuram. The temple district, which also includes a pond surrounded by old Brahmanenhäusern heard, covers an area of 2400 square meters. Particularly striking is the seven-story gopuram over the main entrance. Consecrated he is Padmanabha, an incarnation of Vishnu.
Large quantities of diamonds, rubies, emeralds, gold and many artifacts have been found in sealed for at least 130 years cellars On June 30, 2011. According to initial estimates, the value is about 15 billion euros.
- Napier Museum
The museum, built in 1880 combines elements of the British colonial architecture with traditional features of keralitischen architecture. It houses a collection of bronze sculptures, wooden and gemstone carvings, musical instruments and religious objects.
- Kuthiramalika Palace
The former palace of the rulers of Travancore is a wooden building in the typical Kerala style with remarkable carvings. A part of the palace is now a museum ( Puthenmalika Museum), in which, among other things, the ivory throne of the Rajas of Travancore is issued.
- Sri Chitra Art Gallery
Here miniatures of the Rajput, Mughal and Tanjore School as well as paintings from China, Japan, Tibet and Bali are seen. The modern Indian painting is represented.
Other attractions include the Kanakakkunu Palace, the Zoo opened in 1857 - one of the oldest of India - Priyadarshini Planetarium, many representational and administrative buildings from the colonial period as well as numerous temples, mosques and churches.
About 20 kilometers south of Thiruvananthapuram lies Kovalam. With its long sandy beaches Kovalam is a very popular both among Indians as well as foreigners resort.
The Trivandrum International Airport ( IATA: TRV) is served by 20 airlines.
Thiruvananthapuram is primarily focused on the service sector. Compared to Kochi or Kozhikode industry and commerce play a rather minor role. Main industries are the textile industry, in particular, cotton and silk are processed, and the sugar industry.
In Thiruvananthapuram one of the most important techno park is located around the world. In Technopark Kerala operate over 22,000 engineers.
Thiruvananthapuram has an international airport ( IATA code: TRV). The city is headquarters of IBS Software Services.