Threshing machine

A threshing machine, also called threshing, is an agricultural implement for threshing grain crops, particularly cereals. Threshers are no longer in use, they were ousted in the professional field in Germany in the 1950s to the 1960s by the combine harvester. There were stationary and mobile threshers. The threshing machines were powered initially Göpel horses or steam engines, later mostly by electric motors, stationary internal combustion engines or tractors. There were also small threshing machines for manual operation.


This has the consequence that the Getreidedrusch can be done in a few weeks. Previously they had threshed the grain harvest with the flail, which took about 30 weeks from late September to early May. The Gutstagelöhner received from the threshing part of threshed grain, and had a permanent employment through the winter. With the thresher winter they are unemployed or underemployed and have to accept lower wages in other employment.

A problem in the development of the threshing machine was initially the necessary for the proper working of the high speed Dreschwalze / drum, as you hesitate to about 1850 to go beyond the critical speed of the drum, may occur in the natural oscillations. For a perfect Drescharbeit drum speeds are needed of about 1,000 rpm.

In Germany had threshers in the first half of the 20th century land coverage. There was in Germany around 650,000 threshing. Widespread moved to the grain harvest in the fall and into the winter to contractors with traction engines or tractors ( which were then used as a drive ) and threshing machines traveled from village to village to thresh the grain from the farmers.


The ears, pods, capsules etc. ginned between a high-speed drum and a stationary drum partially encloses basket by impact or friction.

A distinction is made between:

  • Blow bars Drescher and
  • Pin Drescher

In blow bars threshers the drum circumference is provided alongside with ribbed bars and basket with smooth, sharp-edged strips. The grain is beaten by the bars on the threshing drum from the ears. As the sheaves are placed parallel to the drum, is referred to the blow bars Drescher as wide Drescher. This technique is still used in today's combines.

When pin threshers the pins of the drum moves between the pins of the basket. The distance of the basket is adjustable. Although the pin Drescher worked effectively, but damaged the grains more. In addition, the straw is kinked and torn, what any other use of the same except for feed and bedding purposes, such as in the pulp and paper manufacturing, prevented. As the sheaves are supplied in the right angle of the drum, is referred to the pen as a long Drescher Drescher.

Common to both types of thresher that the grains of straw, litter and waste are separated by so-called shakers, sieves and blowers. Machines of the 20th century were also provided with straw press and bag lifter. Straw, short straw, sand and weed left so on a separate path, the threshing machine, while the grains were bagged after removal of the awns and cleaning and partly sorting.

For oil fruits, legumes and corn also special devices were manufactured.

A village community often used a single threshing machine, which was leased to the each harvesting Bauer. At harvest time, then she was constantly in use. For feeding the threshing machine with sheaves, bagging the grain, removing and charging the threshed straw etc. about 10 people were necessary. Franz Rehbein describes in detail in the life of a farm laborer who Dreschpraxis with steam threshing machine around 1900.