Tibet Autonomous Region
- Total - Contribution to PRC
1,268,947 km ² 12.8%
- Total 2010 - Density
3.003 million inhabitants 2.39 inhabitants / km ²
The Tibet Autonomous Region is an autonomous administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China in the field of historical Tibet, where in addition to the Tibetans and members of other ethnic groups or nationalities. Tibetans in turn mostly live in the neighboring provinces of West and Northwest China in the autonomous districts.
- 3.1 telecommunications
- 3.2 Healthcare and Education
- 4.1 Agriculture
- 4.2 industry 4.2.1 Structure
Geography and politics
The Tibet Autonomous Region was created in 1966 as an administrative unit in the People's Republic of China, although in the Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet between the PRC and Tibet a change in the previously existing political system was not agreed. ² It has an area of 1.22 million km. This management unit includes the Central Tibetan former provinces of Ü and Tsang, Ngari, large parts of the Chang Tang, and the western part of the cultural region of Kham. Thus, it corresponds roughly to the former power range of the Dalai Lamas, accounts for roughly half of the Tibet Qinghai Plateau and comprises about half the Tibetan cultural area.
The claimed by India and controlled Tibetan areas are in the area of 1.22 million square kilometers with the calculation. These are: two sections to the west of the circle Gar and in the south of the district Zanda, both in government Ngari (Western Tibet), and the whole south ( southwest) of the circles Cona, Medog and Zayü in the districts of Shannan and Nyingchi ( East Tibet). The membership of these areas to India shall be provided under international law of China in question. From stressed parts of the districts of India Cona, Medog and Zayü and some smaller areas, the state of Arunachal Pradesh was formed.
Large parts of Kham and the culture Amdo were, if they had ever heard of the sphere of the Dalai Lamas, incorporated in the provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, Qinghai and Gansu in the 18th and early 20th century and were not therefore part of the Tibet Autonomous Region.
In the official Chinese parlance, the term "Tibet " is always for the Tibet Autonomous Region; However, the Tibetan populated areas outside the Autonomous Region usually not with also includes the Tibetan term bod བོད་. a. In order to also be included, must also in Tibetan bod chen བོད་ཆེན་ ( "Greater Tibet "; Chinese Da Zàngqū大 藏区). Needed.
The chairman of the Tibetan government is currently Qiangba Puncog.
In the census of the People's Republic of China in 2000 with a population of 2,616,329 for the Tibet Autonomous Region was established ( population density: approx. 2.14 inhab / km ²). All Tibetan groups in China might actually together have a total population of just over five million ( 2005).
In the urban area of Lhasa live about 250,000 people, 120,000 in Xigaze, Nyingchi Qamdo 25,000 and 16,000. According to official figures, 81% of people living in Tibet in the country and 19 % of the people of Tibet in the cities.
According to official Chinese figures, there are currently more than 1700 sites in Tibet again for Tibetan Buddhist activities with approximately 46,000 Buddhist monks and nuns. Furthermore, there are four mosques in Tibet for over 3,000 Muslims (members of the Hui Nationality ) and a Catholic church for over 700 Catholics.
In 2002 was established by law in the Tibet Autonomous Region, the Tibetan language, the same legal force and has the same legal status as the country's common standard Chinese. This means for the schools that the Tibetan language and script must be included as a compulsory subject in the curriculum of all schools in the Tibet Autonomous Region. For major conferences, conventions and meetings, which are held in Tibet, or in court, the Law specifies that anyone can select and use voluntary Tibetan language or the country's common language ( Han Chinese). An educated citizens in Tibet should therefore dominate both the Tibetan as well as Chinese language.
All municipalities Tibet are connected to the national Selbstwählnetz China and there are also, as in all of China Internet connections. Currently, the mobile network will be expanded nationwide.
Healthcare and Education
The enrollment rate in 2008 was at the elementary school 98.5 percent, 92.2 percent at the middle school, to high school, 51.2 percent, and 19.7 percent at the university. According to statements made by the regional Ministry of Education of Tibet in Lhasa notwithstanding, the number of students who attend elementary, middle schools and universities in Tibet, to a total of 380,000. This figure represents 15 percent of the total population.
Tibet has nationwide 6- year compulsory education. Usually taught in the Tibetan language. For further schooling fees must be charged.
Currently, Tibet has a population of 2.6 million people, of which one million people have received a proper education. The illiteracy rate in Tibet has fallen according to official figures, from 44.7 percent in 1991 to 32 percent currently.
The construction of medical care, life expectancy in Tibet 35 years increased in 1959 to 67 in 2008.
The most widely used is the fruit of Tibet highland barley. Where climate allows, also wheat, potatoes, corn and legumes are grown. Because of the long hours of sunshine and the long growing season, agriculture is still possible even at this high altitude, but only in relatively small areas of Tibet, in the area around Lhasa and Shigatse. To the north is pretty soon only livestock possible, to the west the desert begins. The agriculture was mechanized in recent years through the use of machines and increased the total income. Important, however, is still grazing (sheep, yaks ) in the high plains.
The industry is still developing low, but it is supported by the Chinese central government and is growing very fast. There is a mining industry for the reduction of iron, gold, lithium, copper, salt and borax. Lithium and borax Tibet has the world's largest deposits.
Another main economic sector is the construction materials industry.
The development of the value of annual industrial production and the ownership of farms shows the following table.
Tourism is selectively expanded and achieved in recent years growth rates of over 25 % annually. In 2005, over 1 million tourists visited the AGT, more than 100,000 foreigners. 2010, there were already 6.85 million, which contributed revenues of 7.14 billion yuan renminbi with 14.1 percent for Tibetan gross domestic product. In 2011, there were then already 8.5 million tourists. An essential element for the development of tourism is the Lhasa railway as an alternative to the aircraft. To this end, the wagons of Lhasa line were provided with panoramic windows and the line with stops at special viewpoints.
The growth rates of recent years 15 million tourists in Tibet are expected to begin in 2015. From 2020, already a third of total employment in the Tibet Autonomous Region to be involved in tourism according to state plans. 80 to 90 percent of tourists in Tibet are citizens of the People's Republic of China. Of the foreign tourists Japanese form the largest group, the number of Americans and Europeans is increasing.
The traditional mode of transport are caravans of pack animals ( yaks ). This was until 50 years ago the only means of transport, especially since there were no roads. Today, the transport is essentially dominated by road transport. Since the annexation of Tibet by the People's Republic of China ( 1951) were created over 20,000 km of trunk roads. We have created links to Nepal, Sikkim, Xinjiang, Qinghai and Sichuan, whose quality is constantly improving.
Despite the recent road construction is a main factor that hinders the economic development of Tibet, the weak infrastructure. Therefore being speeded up railway lines, roads, airports, power and telecommunications set up and expanded.
The Friendship Highway was until recently a difficult -to-navigate gravel road between the city of Lhasa and the bridge of the Sino -Nepalese friendship on the Tibet-Nepal border in Nyalam. Today, the entire range is expanded with a modern, paved road.
From 2001 to 2005, the Lhasa Railway was built, a 1125 km long railway from Golmud in central China to the Tibetan capital Lhasa. It is a railway predominantly 4000 m above sea level. Since 2007 promoted with this stretch of railway goods such as oil, coal, building materials, goods from the mining of Tibet and another at a fraction of the cost of a railway line and no longer need to be transported by trucks on the highways of Tibet. Thus, the Lhasa railway has a key role in the further economic development of Tibet.
The railway line now has a great importance for the tourism industry. Critics fear, however, that this facilitates the influx of Han Chinese and the ethnic structure is altered to the disadvantage of the Tibetans. However, it is already achieved by the Chinese lowlands from Lhasa by bus in two days.
Since 2010 is built on an extension of the railway line as far as Xigatse. The route is very costly. Approximately half of the route is in tunnels or on bridges. An extension of the route to the capital of Nepal, Kathmandu, is in the planning. This alarmed the Indian governance, because so far is Nepal, through trade and commerce, in the Indian sphere of influence.
The Tibet Autonomous Region has currently (as of 2013) over five civilian airports: the airport Lhasa Gongga near the capital, the airport Qamdo Bamda in government Qamdo and Nyingchi Airport -Main Ling government in Nyingchi; 2010 modern airports were opened in Shigatse Region of Shigatse and Ngari. Currently under construction is situated at an altitude of 4,436 meters Nagqu Dagring Airport in the district Nagqu which the highest airport in the world to be at its completion in 2015.
Gross domestic product
According to official Chinese statistics, the gross domestic product of China's Tibet Autonomous Region on the mark of 20 billion yuan in 2004. The autonomous region has thus recorded over four consecutive years of economic growth of over 12 percent. In 2000, the Gross Domestic Product is still stood at 11.75 billion yuan, in 1994 at 5 billion yuan. In 2006, the gross domestic product of 29 billion yuan ( 2.9 billion euros ) achieved with growth of 13.2 percent compared to 2005.
Investments in tangible assets in Tibet grew in 2004 compared to 2003 by 20 percent.
While traditional agriculture and animal husbandry in the rural areas continue to play a central role in the service sector has overtaken the sector of primary industry ( raw material production ) in the cities in 2005.
The disposable income of a Tibetan was in 2005 in the cities of U.S. $ 1051 and in the country U.S. $ 259 These were in the cities and 30.4% more in the country 55.9 % more than in 2000. Nevertheless survived the majority of Tibetans in the country to date in simple to very simple conditions.
The production quantities of essential commodities of Tibet Autonomous Region have developed in recent years as follows.
(*): The logging in Tibet was reduced from 210,000 m³ in the 80s at 50,000 to 60,000 m³ in 2002 and 2003. This is part of the new environmental requirements.
The Tibet Autonomous Region is a prefecture-level city - divided and six administrative districts - Lhasa:
Nagqu with the same name in the main town of the same district
Nyingchi Bayi with main town in the district of Nyingchi
Ngari with the main town in the district of Gar Zangbo Sengge
Qamdo with the main town in the district of Qamdo Qamdo
Shannan with the main town in the district Zêtang Nedong
Shigatse Shigatse with eponymous capital