The tilde (~ ) (Latin titulus " heading over sign" ) is a character in the form of a horizontal wavy line formed of two equal bays. The character is a punctuation mark, as well as a diacritical mark symbol in some technical language.

  • 2.1 Character Sets 2.1.1 Diacritics
  • 2.1.2 punctuation and other characters

Meanings and use

As a diacritical mark

As a diacritical tilde is used to identify a particular emphasis on pronunciation or a letter. She is a little wavy, wherein the sheet is first up, then down. In the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA ), the following Tilden:

As above superscript character she describes IPA a Nasalis, mostly in vowels. In medieval Latin and Middle High German refers to them as " ñ " today " nn ". You will, amongst other things in Spanish (see Ñ ), in Portuguese, in Basque and in Estonian. As an audio tone on Vietnamese vowels they called the broken rising tone.

  • The ancient Greek Perispomene can - also be cut by a tilde - among others.

As an accent mark, the mark in mathematics and physics - read as "snake" - used for:

  • The naming of variables (as well as other special characters such as the roof ^ ), especially when the variable ( subject or similar processes ) to a transformed size refers. example:
  • Labeling for approximations: is an approximation, a rounded value or an estimate for.

The font symbol

Mathematical operators and technical character

As an independent character, the tilde in mathematics and physics is used:

  • As an indication of proportional (for example, at a constant speed movement of the path is proportional to the time, in symbols: )
  • In elementary geometry for similar ( - similar triangles have equal angles )
  • In the statistics for having a random distribution as ( - X follows a normal distribution with mean 5 and standard deviation 2)
  • Two superposed Tilden () as a mark for approximately equal to, or as the rounding characters (for example). There are also several other variations of the equal sign ( ≂, ≃, ≄, ≅, ≆, ≇, ≉, ≊, ≋ ) and comparing characters ( ≲, ≴, ⋦, ≳, ≵, ⋧, ≾, ⋨, ≿, ⋩, and others) in a corresponding meaning.
  • The vertical tilde denotes the wreath product
  • In electrical engineering for AC voltage

Computer-related uses:

  • In some programming languages, such as ML, the tilde stands for the unary minus.
  • In the programming language C and derived languages ​​(eg Java), the tilde represents the one's complement or the unary NOT operator, which inverts each bit.

As a shortcut icon

For brevity as ellipsis or substitute symbol:

  • In dictionaries, glossaries or indexes, the tilde is used as replacement for the listed term.
  • Based on the mathematical Doppeltilde ≈ "approximately equal " as a substitute for circa.
  • As a genealogical character tilde stands for " baptized "

Computer-related uses:

  • On Unix and Unix derivatives such as Linux, BSD or Solaris, it stands alone for the home directory of the currently logged in user and a user name behind the home directory of the respective user. This works in almost all shells such as bash, csh, tcsh, zsh, or ksh. Even modern desktop environments like KDE and GNOME understand the tilde in this manner wherever file names are expected. If you know the username chris, so ~ is an abbreviated notation for (usually ) / home / chris.
  • ~ lucy is a shorthand notation for (usually ) / home / lucy.
  • With cp file ~ you can for example copy file directly to your home directory.
  • Http://www.example.com/ ~ lucy / shows the appropriate configuration of the web server directly to the directory / home / lucy / public_html.

As Deskriptorsymbol

Computer-related uses:

  • In the script language Perl, the tilde is used in an operator to initiate a regular expression.
  • The tilde is used as marking the destructor in C . The destructor is like a normal method named tilde class name defined.

As a punctuation mark

The tilde is sometimes mistaken for the Japanese and the like in other East Asian languages ​​symbol ~ (U 301 C ) called Nami dash (波 ダッシュ, Nami dasshu, dt " wave em dash " ) is used. This replaces the usual punctuation in Latin writing systems indent, eg from-to information and subtitles. It is also used as a fun version of the choon.

As a letter

The African reference alphabet ( a 1982 -designed extension of the Latin alphabet for African Languages ​​) contains a tilde linearised as 32 ​​of its 60 letters, arranged alphabetically before the "n". It features a preceding letter as nasal. Due to the design as a full letter (which is also like other small letters the full x-height occupies ) was one of the design principles of the alphabet, namely the need to use any diacritics into account. Since the alphabet (ie no capital letters knows ) is unikameral, no Versalform is specified. The letter is placed in any current orthography and is not included in Unicode (as of 2013 Unicode Version 6.3).

Display on the computer



In the character sets of ISO 8859 family selected character occur with tilde, ISO 8859-1 contains AA, Ññ, oo

Contains Unicode

  • More finished composite characters with tilde, both in the Latin1 code page and its extensions, as well as the many language-specific groups as needed
  • A glyph for a reduced tilde to U 02 DC in Spacing Modifier Letters Unicode block (U 02 B0- U 02 FF)
  • And can represent (the three IPA characters, plus a few more ) of any character with a tilde by adjusting a combining tilde. You are in the Unicode block combining diacritics ( 0300- 036F )

Punctuation and other characters

In the ASCII character set the character " ~ " occurs, it is set to the code number 126, Unicode U 007 E

On Windows it is in a German keyboard layout by combining the Alt Gr key and : written ( Switzerland ^ ). Under Mac OS you created this character by pressing Alt N and Linux by Alt Gr ; then pressing the spacebar a single tilde is generated, the subsequent start typing (eg, n ) gives the letters with a tilde ( ñ).

More tilde:

  • The Unicode block contains U 223 C Mathematical operators tilde operator ( as HTML Entity ~ ), the other mathematical characters such as the plus and minus sign fits in the same type font in size and style in general.

TeX and LaTeX can represent any character with a tilde. There are two different commands to

  • In text mode for the text set generated \ ~ a ã
  • In math mode generated for the set of formulas \ tilde a, the formula

For the ASCII character ~ ( tilde small, superscript ) is recommended with LaTeX2e command \ textasciitilde - in plain TeX and LaTeX2.09 it must begin with \ ~ { } be circumscribed. The big tilde ~ is, however, encoded with \ sim ( in math mode ).

The tilde character itself is also a command in LaTeX: It generates a nonbreaking space.