Tkibuli (Georgian ტყიბული; German Tkibuli also derived from the Russian spelling ) is a city in the central part of Georgia, in the region of Imereti. It is the administrative seat of the homonymous municipality has about 16,800 inhabitants and Tkibuli ( 2009).
The city is located about 160 km in a straight line north-west of the state capital Tbilisi and 25 kilometers north-east of the regional capital Kutaisi. It extends over several kilometers in the narrow valley of the same river Tkibuli ( in the lower reaches Dsewri ), a right tributary of the right Rioni influx Qwirila. North of the city is enclosed in a semi-circle from almost 1500 m high Nakerala comb, as this section of the Racha - mountain train is called, the Imereti here of the historical province of Racha, part of today's region of Racha - Letschchumi and Niederswanetien separates.
1845 coal deposits were the village Tkwibuli (Russian Тквибули ), as the place was called until the first half of the 20th century, discovered. However, their exploitation on an industrial scale began only after the accession of a railway line from Kutaisi 1887. A briquette factory was built, and 1897 were 1.288 million poods ( 20,000 tons ) promoted coal.
In the Soviet period, coal production has been significantly expanded. The population of the town was multiplied; initially he was awarded the status of a urban-type settlement and 1939, the city rights. From 1945 to 1949 was located in the city of the POW camp for 518 German prisoners of war of World War II up to 7600 inmates in several branch camps. They were mainly used in coal mining and the construction industry. During this time, the railway line was electrified by Tkibuli to secure the continuous supply of coal to the large, in Rustavi in eastern Georgia newly constructed steel plant.
The economic crisis of the 1990s, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, along with the decline of coal mining, resulted in a decline in population Tqibulis by a third.
Note: 1897-2002 census data (1897 rounded ), 2009 calculation
Economy and infrastructure
In addition to the coal mining industry there are companies in the food industry ( tea) and the construction and forestry. South of the city of Tkibuli River is dammed to Tkibuli - reservoir, which since 1956 is the Tkibuli or Dsewrula hydropower plant with a capacity of 80 megawatts. Beyond the Nakerala Comb is located on the north to the Rioni flowing Schaori another, eponymous reservoir whose water is, however, passed through a tunnel under the ridge into the valley of Tkibuli. There it drives on the northern edge of the city Tkibuli to the Schaori hydropower plant with a capacity of 38 megawatts, which was commissioned in 1955. Both power plants are now operated by Energo -Pro Georgia, which is part of Energo -Pro for Czech companies.
Tkibuli is the end of a 49 -kilometer-long railway line, which in a southern suburb of Kutaisi from the route Tbilisi in Stationi Rioni - branches Poti. It was opened in 1887 and electrified in 1946-1948 with 3000 volts DC. In the area of the city lie the stations Tkibuli I and II Tkibuli
Road connection exists in a southwesterly direction to Kutaisi and south through the valley of the Tkibuli. The road continues north across the 1,218 meters high Nakerala pass over the Ratscha mountain range in the by road 42 km (air line 25 km) distant capital of Racha - Letschchumi and Niederswanetien Ambrolauri region where the Ossetic military road through the upper Rioni valley is reached.
Sons and daughters of the town
- Kachi Kawsadse ( born 1935 ), theater and film actor