Tla A'min Nation
With Sliammon or Sliammon First Nation (also Tla'amin ) is a Canadian First Nation refers to the traditional lives on both sides of the Strait of Georgia. It belongs to the family of languages of the Salish, culturally to the coastal Salish.
The tribe had in August 2009, exactly 970 recognized by the state members, of whom 570 lived (one year earlier 601) within the reserve, 396 outside and 4 more in other reserves.
The traditional territory of the Sliammon extends from the area at Stillwater and Texada Iceland northward over Malaspina and Gilford Peninsula to the south of the Homfray Channel and partially Cortes Iceland. It included a total of 370 km ². In this area they inhabited about ten villages, and many seasonal residential sites.
The oral tradition has hijacked and sunk in the 1750s 18 warriors of the Sliammon a Spanish ship, which however in the mud so far could not be found. George Vancouver's people met on the Sliammon on the coast of Iceland Harwood (Ah gyk'sen ). Two other Spanish ships Sutil and Mexicana are guaranteed. 1838 met the Beaver by Hudson's Bay Company at the Sliammon ( " Tla'amin " ) in the north of Texada Iceland and muskets sold for furs.
George Vancouver in the summer of 1780, the estimated population in Jervis Inlet to around 5,000. The total number of coastal Salish, which was estimated at 12,000 in 1835, dropped to around 4000 to 1915. They fell victim to epidemics such as smallpox, measles or flu.
Oblate Mission and the "System Powell "
The Sliammon were evangelized by the Oblates in the late 1860s, that is held by Father Eugène- Casimir Chirouse, the services in Lake Powell and Grace Harbour. With his help, probably 400 Tulalip were vaccinated during the smallpox epidemic of 1862 and so until August 1862 probably fallen victim to only three of them the disease. On the other hand, he had in 1892, flogged in the service of the mission of Snohomish, an Indian girl and was being held in court. 1896 emerged the first churches in the Church House, Squirrel Cove and Sliammon. The Sliammon be induced to adopt Christian names. Few dared even potlatches celebrate in Scuttle Bay with their medicine men.
By 1880, Indian Commissioner / Superintendent Dr. Israel W. Powell was also responsible for the Sliammon. Back in 1873, 15,000 acres were illegally acquired land (Lot 450) awarded to RP Rithet, a close associate of Dr. Powell. The area extends from today's Grief Point to Sliammon. Thus, the Sliammon were expropriated three permanently inhabited villages and numerous seasonal settlements. But the Sliammon resisted. About 1878 they made the timber company competition, the Sliammon confiscated even tribes that had been struck too close to their village.
1879 both the Sliammon a tiny reserve with 20 ha per family (Canadian average: 80). Commissioner Gilbert M. Sproat (since 1875) in 1880 attacked because of too generous land grants, in particular by Dr. Powell. Powell was until 1889 Dominion Inspector of Indian Agents - and Powell River still bears his name. Even last year, on December 8, the Sliammon had a conversation with Malcolm Gilbert Sproat of the Indian Reserve Commission two and a half miles from Harwood on the reserves, but was denied them a sanctuary in their traditional territory.
Forced Assimilation: Education and Schools
1903 asked the Sliammon to construction of a school (Indian Boarding School ), although in 1918 burned down. From 1920 Residential Schools were established with rigorous compulsory education. The children were assigned to St. Mary's in Mission (1861-1984), Kamloops Indian Residential School (1890-1978) and St. Augustine's in Sechelt ( 1913-1975 ). They were there not speak their native language, and should be made to Canadians - with no memory of their culture.
In 1960 was only a third of children in public schools. The policy of segregation in public facilities and means of transport remained until well into the 60s in use.
Forced relocation, reserves, expropriation
As early as 1892 was Arthur Milton from Vancouver as a result of the Rivers and Streams Act, the right to obstacles on Powell Lake to clear out of the way that hindered his wooden rafts and other forest management activities. This was probably the legacies of the Sliammon meant. Something similar happened to the artifacts at the Powell River, as there 1909, the Powell River Paper Co. was founded.
The McKenna - McBride Commission in 1912 investigated the location of the Indian reservations, preparing far-reaching decisions before. 1910-1915 the Sliammon were forcibly relocated to Indian Reserve 1. They had villages at Grief Point North, including teas kwat ( now the site of a sawmill ) and other settlements in Lot 450 exit. Some rendered futile resistance against the demolition of their homes.
As in 1912, the dam was built on the Powell River, disappeared numerous archaeological sites. This is especially true for the important place Tiskw'at. In September 1919 a major fire destroyed the Sliammon Village and even endangered Powell River.
Land was expropriated, especially from 1920 for highways (such as 1927 for the Lund Highway), telephone lines, saw mills, mining and logging - sometimes for private roads, such as in 1932 when 25 acres for the entrance to the courtyard of the Ranchers John Wilde were expropriated.
The Sliammon, however, got no land rights, but were allowed to fish commercially in 1923. The joint fleet of Sliammon, Klahoose and Homalco included more than 100 boats before 1970.
Relatively late, in 1929 ( elsewhere as early as 1875), the traditional chief system was replaced by a Wahlhäuptlingstum with advisory boards. First elected chief was Tom Timothy ( 1929-1951 ). During the forties, the reinterpreted by the church Watchman system, an original mediation and compensation system, which had been converted by the Oblates becoming a control and punishment system disappeared.
1949 were all Indians the right to vote for the provincial legislature in 1960 for the national parliament. In 1951, Indian Agent was increasingly displaced by the Chief, which were especially Charles Peters ( 1951-54 ) and Jimmy Peters ( 1954-59 ). The Sliammon aimed at self-government (self governance). Joseph Mitchell ( 1971-83 ) was herein particularly successful: In 1973 a new band Office, 1976, the Salish Centre and a salmon farm. In 1981, a building campaign that resulted in up to 1996 arose around 190 new homes. In the 1990s, dared the first families regain their traditional dances (public) listed. In 1999, the language of the Sliammon has been recognized as a second language in order to take up studies at the universities can.
On 19 April 1994, the first stage began in 1996, the second of the contract negotiations with British Columbia, but in 2001 a first agreement in principle by the Indians refused a modified 2003, however, accepted. In 1999, allowed voting rights for non Indians living on the reservation first came into force in 2002 and resulted in the Sliammon 100 new voters.
In 2002, the city of Powell River built a coastal path, which acted as a nature trail at the same time. There initially appeared virtually no evidence of relics of the Sliammon, on the contrary, several archaeological sites were damaged. Up to 2004, negotiations dragged on between the city and the Sliammon, which resulted in the city for the first time returned land on which an old - Sliammon village called teas Kwat had stood. In addition, the trail was equipped with explanations in the Sliammon language. Even place names in Wildwood, Cranberry, Townsite and Westview were additionally provided with their Sliammon name, and in Ajoomixw Park was a totem pole.
Homer Barnett examined the first anthropologist the culture and language of the Sliammon mid-1930s. He published his work in 1955 The Coast Salish of British Columbia.
Randy Bouchard and Dorothy Kennedy began in 1970 its over ten -year survey of the elders ( Elders ) of the Sliammon, Klahoose and Homalco. Their results led to the publication: " Sliammon Life, Sliammon Lands".
The coordinator of the Sliammon Treaty Society, Hew'kin (Joe) Mitchell, led 1970-1999 through numerous interviews with the Elders. They are now under the Sliammon Traditional Use Study the basis for a GPS-based detection and mapping of significance for the Sliammon sites in their area. The temporary card listed only 17 villages, and a large number of rock carvings and other historical sources.
In 2006 alone, 57 First Nations were in contract negotiations with British Columbia, and Canada. This involves contractual arrangements within the traditional tribal areas. But it is precisely these areas often overlap, either because one has previously agreed to various rights in the areas concerned, or is contested cases. The Sliammon agreed in 1995 with the Sechelt on their claims, they were followed by the rest of the neighbors, so the Homalco, Klahoose, Comox ( K'omoks ), We Wai Kai, Wei Wai Kum and the Kwiakah First Nations. With the referendum of 2002, the negotiations entered a new stage, with the Sliammon today are one of the tribes that have a contract the next.
The Naut'sa Mawt Tribal Council ( NMTC ) represents here the ten First Nations of Chemainus, Halalt, Homalco, Klahoose, Malahat, Nanoose, Sliammon, Snuneymuxw, Tsawwassen and Tsleil - Waututh.
With the Kwuth Ta -ow - report ("our briefings " ), which was created by Melissa Louie in 2000, the collection of historical information about the traditional system of government that are now all members of the tribe began available. On 26 June 2004, the traditional villages and Teeskwat Tla'amin were recognized along with various historically valuable sites (English Heritage sites). Therefore, a common Culture and Heritage Committee is established.
The end of 2004 was a government-to -government relationship, a contractual agreement between two equal governments, with the completed Powell River Regional District. The City of Powell River recognized the Sliammon people - as the original inhabitants of the country. The traditional territory was recognized, and the right to self-government (English self -government). In return, the tribe recognized the rights of the city Powell River British Columbia as a municipality. Chief since 2004, Walter Paul.
The Sliammon live in six reserves, which Sliammon 1 and Harwood Iceland 2 with 778.8 or 847.8 ha are by far the largest. The former is located 2 kilometers north-west of Powell River, and there also live the most Sliammon, the latter is located north of Texada Iceland. Toquana 4 ( 160.1 ha), Tokenatch 5 ( 21.4 ha) and Kahkaykay 6 ( 18.2 ha ) are located on tributaries of the Malaspina Inlet or in its vicinity. Only Paukeanum 3 ( 80.9 ha) is no longer in Westminster District but in Sayward District, more particularly, to Cortes Iceland, on the west coast, north of Smelt Bay. Overall, the reserves include approximately 1927 ha