Toro is a Spanish town in the province of Zamora in Castilla y León with 9421 inhabitants (as of 1 January 2013), who refer to themselves as Toresanos.
Toro is located on a plateau above the river Douro at a height of about 740 meters above sea level. d. M. The distance to Zamora is about 35 km ( driving distance ) to the west; Valladolid is located about 70 kilometers to the east.
In the years 1900-1940 Toro had merely 8,000 inhabitants.
The area surrounding the town is dominated by agriculture to a large extent; The city served as a service center for trade and crafts. The viticulture takes a long time a significant role; Toro has its own Denomination of Origin ( denominación ) wine ( see: Toro ( wine region ) )
The oldest archaeological finds go back to the Celtiberian and Roman times. Already in pre-Roman times the area was inhabited by the Vacceos; the Greek historian Polybius mentions place names such as Helmántica (Salamanca) and Arbucala, which was then modified by the Romans in Albucela, later in " Toro ". In the 8th century it was conquered by the Moors. After the reconquest ( Reconquista ) of Spain by the Christians, the fertile region was colonized by settlers from Asturias, Navarra and the Basque Country again since the end of the 9th century.
Ferdinand III. of Castile was crowned in 1230 in Toro to the king; his wife Elisabeth of Swabia died there five years later. In the assemblies of estates ( cortes ), which in 1369 under Henry II, in 1397, under Henry III. and 1426 and 1442 were held under Juan II, Toro had voting rights. 1476 the city was the site of the Battle of Toro. This arose from the conflict between the Crown of Castile Juana la Beltrenaja and Isabella of Castile. In 1505, the national assembly was convened in Toro, at the King Ferdinand the will of Queen Isabella leaving. Joan the Mad was proclaimed queen and the "Laws of Toro " were published.
After the political and economic decline of the city began in the 17th century until it because of their importance to agriculture and was appointed in particular for vine growing to the provincial capital - a status it but in 1833 due to the restructuring of Spain lost again.
Culture and sights
- Particularly worth seeing is the Collegiate Church of Santa María la Mayor, whose construction was begun in 1160 under Alfonso VII, but dragged on until about 1240 (possibly even until the end of the 13th century ). During the reign of the Catholic kings, it was raised to collegiate. The church has three naves and a transept; the transept is crowned by an exceptional ribbed dome. The church contains Romanesque and early Gothic style elements: the tympanonlose Romanesque portal on the north side shows a Moorish-style multi -pass arc. The Gothic west portal, the portal of the majesty is, with figures, angels, kings, prophets, patriarchs, bishops and virgins represent, adorned; is noteworthy that the earlier place in Tympanonfeld depicting the Last Judgement has been replaced by a Coronation of the Virgin. The Last Judgement is instead moved to the extreme Archivolte. In the sacristy is a picture of "Mary with the fly ", a Flemish paintings from the 16th century is located.
Romanesque portal of the Collegiate
" Madonna of the Fly" ( Flemish 16th century)
- The Iglesia de San Lorenzo el Real is a church of the 12th century in Mudejar style. The interior of the nave originally - with the exception of parts of the foundation area - made entirely of brick House of God convinces by its simple elegance, to which also contributes an open roof structure in the Moorish style. In the apse there are still remains of frescoes.
San Lorenzo el Real - apse and south
- The - plastered in parts - three-aisled Mudejar church Iglesia de San Salvador de los Caballeros formerly belonged to the Knights Templar and now houses an interesting museum of sacred art.
San Salvador - View of the apse
San Salvador - View of the nave
- The town hall ( ayuntamiento ) is from the 18th century in the Plaza Mayor. It is built in baroque and classical style.
- At the Plaza Mayor is the Gothic church of St. Sepulchre (Iglesia del Santo Sepulchre ), which belonged to the Equestrian Order of the Holy grave in Jerusalem.
- Not far away stands the clock tower ( torre de reloj ), who has served simultaneously as a city gate. It was built in the 18th century.
- Just outside of the city center is the monastery Real Monasterio de Santi Spiritus. It was founded in 1307 by the Portuguese Teresa Gil and inhabited by Dominican nuns. Today the monastery is a museum there live only a few nuns in it. Of particular importance is the tomb of alabaster of the deceased around 1420 Portuguese Queen Beatrix.
- From Palazio Leyes de los only is the portal with the 83 known laws. Inside the palace the will of the deceased in November of the previous year Isabella the Catholic was read by her widowed husband Ferdinand II of Aragon on 11 January 1505. The rest of the building was destroyed by fire in 1923.
- The church of the former Premonstratensian monastery ( Monasterio de Santa Sofía (Toro) ) combines style elements of Gothic, Renaissance and Mudejar style.
- The Arco de Postigo is next to the Arco de Reloj another gate in the old city wall.
- The Puerta de Cooredera is a city gate of the newer wall and was built in 1602.
- At the Plaza de Agustín is the built in the 10th century Alcazar (castle ), which is also commonly known as " prison " ( carcel ) refers.
- Other interesting churches are the Santissima Trinidad and San Sebastián of the os Caballeros, which were built in the 13th century and rebuilt in the 16th century.
- There are also some old palaces in the city, which can be seen partially.
- Just outside the town is the hermitage of Ermita Santa Maria de la Vega de Toro - another Mudejar brick building from the 12th century.
Toro advertises itself with the carnival and the Fiesta San Agustín, which takes place in late August. For Fiesta located in the city three times more visitors than residents. In the evening, a colorful parade with colorful, bright cars, music and marchers will take place. Furthermore, there is the Semana Santa, the Pilgrimage del Cristo de las Batallas, which takes place in May, and in September the feast of Virgen del Canto.
Far beyond the borders of the city, the Banda de Musica la Lira is known; The orchestra has been in existence since 1890. It has worked with the famous conductor Jesús López Cobos, who comes from Toro and already was music director of the Spanish National Orchestra and the Deutsche Oper in Berlin played.
- Juan Pardo de Tavera (1472-1545), Cardinal and Grand Inquisitor
- Jesús López Cobos ( born 1940 ), conductor