Tulum (on Mayathan Tulu'um, "wall" or "fortress" ) is located on the so- called Mayan Riviera, a stretch of coastline on the Caribbean coast of Mexico in the state of Quintana Roo, about 130 kilometers south of Cancun.
Unlike all other Mayan sites Tulum is located on the sea. The best-known buildings are next to the so-called castle of the " temple of God coming down to " the. "Temple of the Wind" and the frescoes Temple The inner city is surrounded by a city wall open to the sea, are on their guard towers northwest and southwest corners. From historic preservation reasons, all structures are no longer accessible to visitors.
Inhabited since about 1200, Tulum was one of the largest cities in the Yucatan Peninsula in the 13th and 14th centuries. The Spanish navigator Juan Díaz compared the size of the city in 1518 with the Seville. Probably Tulum was due to its convenient location near the sea an important trade hub between several regions of the Maya and had a developed defense system. As a religious center Tulum was still inhabited when the Spaniards arrived.
Juan Díaz, a member of the Spanish Juan de Grijalva expedition, mentioned as the first European to Tulum in 1518th The first modern visitors, who left notes, John Lloyd Stephens was.
While the caste war Tulum was a center of resistance of the Maya. This was similar to Chan Santa Cruz since 1871 a Talking Cross, which. Of the Mayan priestess Uicab María, who was " Queen of Tulum " guarded,
The whole area of the city was built with low houses, of which only the base walls can be seen. The larger, brick buildings bear descriptive names that are not authentic today.
The Castillo ( German about: the castle ) is the tallest building of Tulum. The Spaniard Juan Díaz held this tower in 1518 for the largest he had ever seen. The upper building has two vaulted rooms, the three inputs are supported by serpentine columns. Its no longer extant snake heads were resting on the floor. The other facade frieze is relatively simple.
Next to the castle is the " temple of God coming down to " or " Templo del Dios descendente ". It received its name from the one in roof frieze figure of the Descending God. This in Tulum multiple deity depicted ( for example, in the castle ) has been associated with the sun, the rain, the lightning and beekeeping, and called on Mayathan Ah Mucen Cab ( bee God).
The " temple frescoes ", also the temple friezes (Spanish Templo de las Pinturas ), got its name because of the many wall paintings of snakes, fish, lizards, and other marine animals which frame each deities. Probably served the temples of worship of deities who were related to soil fertility.
The "Temple of the Wind" (Spanish Templo del Dios del Viento ) was built on a natural hill close to the sea. It is built on a semi-circular platform and has a space. The semi-circular structure suggests the worship of the wind and provides a rare for the Mayan culture construction dar. comparable basic architectural structures are found further west, such as at Uxmal on the " Pyramid of the Magician ".
The entire city was running them from a right angle (385 × 165 m ), with m 6 foot width very massive wall enclosed between a height of 3-5 m; only the page on the coast remained unprotected.
The modern Tulum
- See also: Tulum (city)
The town lives mainly from tourism, which is attracted by the appeal of the archaeological site and the beaches. Until about the 1990s, the tourists came mainly with coaches on day trips from Cancún and Tulum itself there were few basic hotels.
Tulum consists of two parts. The road from the highway to the site via the current Tulum Pueblo, a rapidly growing town with about 10,000 inhabitants, situated at 20 ° 13 ' N, 87 ° 28' W20.218055555556 - 87.4625Koordinaten: 20 ° 13 ' N, 87 ° 28 ' W, along the Ruta 307 Cancún - Chetumal.
The stretch of beach south of the ruins, the so-called Zona Hotelera, has been almost entirely built over several kilometers since the mid- 1990s. The ruins of the nearest facilities are the oldest and simplest, rustic bungalows without electricity and water. Further south is increasing the quality of the accommodation, as well as the prices, sharply.
The Zona Hotelera is connected via a paved road with the 5 km away in Tulum Pueblo and can only be reached by shuttle buses or taxis