Two-round system

A runoff election will be performed when in a previous ballot the required majority for a decision has not been reached.

With some choice is only elected if more than half of the votes (or the votes of more than half of the members) into its possession. No candidate reaches this majority, not even with a possibly specified number of repetitions, according to election rules, a new balloting be necessary as runoff. It usually occur only the two candidates with the most votes.


If you want to save the costs for a second election in public political elections, then, there are two options:

  • The ( single ) ballots offers an opportunity to make a replacement voice. It may be considered a disadvantage that the usual two to three weeks disappear between the ballots, which give the two candidates the opportunity to new campaigning.
  • The ranking dialing ( with immediate runoff, English " Instant Runoff Voting " ) has an additional advantage over an election with only one subsequent runoff: You explored and followed the will of voters in more detail. It combines several ballots in an election act, as many as necessary. Of course, it requires a little more attention to the voters and more work in counting.


In Germany ballots (eg, district, mayor, mayor ) provided by many states as part of the municipal law for the election of the head office officials.


Why do multiple ballots may be necessary to illustrate the following example. It will be voted on dessert, have been proposed as apples, pears, cherries, cakes and ice cream.

One can therefore find that a majority of ice. However, if all those who voted for fruit, prefer any fruit did not meet as cake or ice cream, then here was obviously the actual electorate. Worse, a runoff election between the two candidates with the most votes, as is often the case, does not encourage the electorate to days. Only in subsequent ballots that might look like the following it will be obvious what actually holds a majority of the voters for the best solution:

Now, of course, must for the same reason, a fourth ballot to follow, which will be decided by how many supporters would prefer to ice the cake, or rather apples.

The correspondence on various Nachtischsorten could in actual elections as political camp as "right" and be "left", where it would be absurd if a stock would have less chance just because competing in him more candidates on which the voters can split itself. In real political situations but must of course be borne in mind that too many ballots, voters are put off by the effort, which is why you often reduced to a simple random choice - limited - so a second and final ballot.