The TX -0 ( Transistorized Experimental computer zero) is considered the first transistor-based computer and was founded in 1955 at MIT Lincoln Laboratory developed and deployed starting in 1956. He was the successor of the Whirlwinds, who did not yet have transistors, and predecessor of the PDP -1. Originally it was only demonstrate the capabilities of transistors and assist the successor model TX -2.


The computer is composed of transistors, the memory based on magnetic core memories. The top speed was 83 Kops (OPS Operations per second). As with the PDP - 1, the main memory not bytes, but from 18-bit wide words. In the basic version, the storage capacity was 65,536 words. 1958 of the memory assigned to the successor computer TX -2 and the TX -0 is equipped with a memory of 4096 words. In 1959 the capacity was expanded to 8192 words. The address size was reduced from 16 to 13 bits.

From 1957 there was a 12 inch oscilloscope (512 × 512 pixels) as a monitor and a light pen from 1958. The unit also had a speaker. As there was peripheral printers and tape drives ( magnetic tapes and paper tape).



Between the first video game Tennis for Two and the first computer game Spacewar, there were already some demos and simple, mostly text-based games, and chess and tic -tac-toe.


The TX -0 is considered the first modern computer. With the possibility of direct programming (without hole cards), the first hacker clubs emerged.


  • Whirlwind ( tubes rather than transistors)


  • TX -1
  • TX -2 ( 1958)
  • PDP - 1 from DEC (1959 )