Mountain elm ( Ulmus glabra)
The Wych Elm (Ulmus glabra; syn. Ulmus scabra, Ulmus montana) is a large tree from the kind of elm (Ulmus ) and belongs to the family of Elm Family ( Ulmaceae ). The elm was elected in 1992 to the tree of the year.
The elm grows as a deciduous tree, reaching heights of growth of up to 40 meters and trunk diameter of up to 3 meters. Its buds are big and hairy, just as the younger branches. The leaves of the elm are, as in all Central European elm species, asymmetric, variable, 8-20 cm long, larger leaves are often tricuspid, they are widest in the middle, often short-haired with 13 to 20 nerve pairs, upper side rather rough above,.
The flowering period extends from March to April. The flowers are sessile on leafless spurs in small knäueligen trugdoldigen inflorescences. The hermaphrodite flowers have a fünfspaltiges, mostly red perianth.
The fruit ripens from April to May When the fruit often longer lasting green nutlets is in the middle of the wing.
The chromosome number is 2n = 28
The mountain elm can be up to 400 years old. The rotation period in forestry is 120-140 years. Trunk and branches are repeatedly übergipfelt by side shoots ( branching sympodial monochasial ). The leaves as well as the side branches are arranged in two rows (light protection ). The elm is photosynthesis in spring, before the leaves appear, already adopted by the sheet-like wings of the maturing green fruits.
The heart forms as root fungal root of a VA -mycorrhiza, previous data on a ectotrophic mycorrhizae have not been confirmed.
The flower buds overwinter. Flowers Ecologically it is the " Running forward ," that is, before the leaves appearing and wind-pollinated " Hängeblütiger type". Remains of Pollenkitt, as is common for insect pollination, are available.
The flowers are strictly vormännliche hermaphrodite. Remnants of glands produce nectar at the base of the stamen traces of nectar, so that at this point the basic system can be seen for insect pollination. The pollen is also an important bee food in the spring. The flowering ability of the sycamore begins after 30-40 years.
The wing nuts are glider with a sink rate of 0.67 m / s They are far away, only transports in high winds. Also by water adhesion to animals spread is possible.
The early fruit ripening is made possible by taking place in the maturing fruit photosynthesis. The seeds are light to germinate, but only a few days germinable.
The caterpillars of the following butterflies are from the elm as a food source dependent ( selection):
- C- Falter ( Nymphalis c -album)
- Elm Fleckenspanner ( Abraxas grossulariata )
- Big Beef tensioner ( Hypomecis roboraria )
- White forehead and white tensioner ( Cabrera pusaria )
The elm is spread almost all over Europe, from central Spain, Italy and South East Europe to southern Scandinavia, the British Isles to the Ural Mountains. She is from the lowlands up to an altitude of 1300 meters encountered.
The mountain - scattered elm comes before in ravine forests and shady hillside forests. She prefers sickerfeuchte, nutrient -and base- rich, even moving loam and clay soils. After Ellenberg it is a default pointer heat, a weak acid to weak base pointer, growing on nitrogen-rich sites and a Verbandscharakterart the Linden maple and maple -beech mixed forests ( Tilio platyphylli - Acerion pseudoplatani ).
The well-known Dutch elm disease is caused by the ascomycete Ophiostoma ulmi. He lives in the tracheae of the most recent annual rings and encourages Verthyllung, which leads to blockage of the trachea and thus the death of the tree. The fungus is transmitted by a bark beetle, the elm bark beetle ( Scolytus scolytus ), especially when the trees - as in plantations on roads - have unfavorable site conditions and stand close together. The disease is clearly encouraged by groundwater lowering. Diseased branches (or even whole trees ) should be eliminated immediately.
Even as an avenue tree they planted.
The elastic and tough wood of the mountain elm shows a beautiful grain. It is under the name " Elm " in the trade, and provides mainly veneer for furniture and interior design. Also for turning it's used. The heartwood is pale brown of the elm, the beautifully drawn wood is often referred to as " elm ".