Union of Democratic Forces (Bulgaria)
The Union of Democratic Forces ( Bulgarian Съюз на демократичните сили / Sajus na Demokratitschnite Sili, short СДС / SDS ) is a conservative party in Bulgaria. The SDS is a member of the International Democratic Union, the Christian Democratic International and the European People's Party. The party color is blue. The newspaper Demokrazija (German democracy ) is the organ of the party.
The SDS was founded in 1989 by a number of opposition parties and groups against communist rule. From the first free election in 1990 to 2001, she was one of the two largest parties in the country. 1991-92 and from 1997 to 2001 she led the government. Since then, their share of the vote has steadily fallen. Since 2013, it has not been represented in the Bulgarian Parliament.
Establishment and initial success
The SDS was founded ам December 7, 1989 as an alliance of the following ten opposition parties and groups in Communist Bulgaria: Klub sa glastnost i demokrazija ( Bulg Клубът за гласност и демокрация ), Association Ekoglastnost ( Bulg Сдружение " Екогласност " ) Arbeitskonföderation Podkrepa ( bulg. Конфедерацията на труда " Подкрепа " ), Independent society for the Protection of Human Rights ( bulg Независимото дружество за защита на правата на човека ) , Committee for protection of religious rights, freedom of conscience and spiritual values ( bulg Комитетът за защита на религиозните права, свободата на съвестта и духовните ценности ), the club from 1945 unjustly oppressed ( bulg Клубът на незаконно репресираните след 1945 г. ), Independent Student Association ( bulg Независимото студентско дружество ), motion citizens' Initiative ( bulg Движение " Гражданска инициатива " ), BRSDP (o) ( bulg БРСДП ( о ) ), BSNS - Nikola Petkov ( bulg БЗНС " Никола Петков "). Later still involved the radical Democratic Party, the Green Party, the party Neusozialdemokratische ( Bulg Нова социалдемократическа партия ), the United Democratic Center ( Bulg Обединен демократичен център ) and the Democratic Front ( Bulg Демократичният фронт ). First Chairman of the Union was the philosopher and former dissident Schelju Zhelev, who is also the first democratically elected president of Bulgaria in 1990 and led the party until 1996.
The SDS participated in the first democratic government led by the Socialists. After the breakup of the coalition in 1991, the SDS, the government alone. A year later, again took over the Socialists with Shan Widenov the government. Under the policy of ex - communists of the State in 1996 became economic ruin. In this period, with the support of the Konrad -Adenauer -Stiftung 1996, the coalition United Democratic Forces (ODS ) was founded. At the coalition in addition to the SDS, the People's Union ( a coalition of the Democratic Party and BSNS -NS ) and the DPS were represented. The goal of the coalition was to oust the ex- communists of the GNP of the political power. The economic situation in the country deteriorated, led in winter 1996/97 to hyperinflation and mass protests across the country, which were led by the ODS. On 13 February 1997 Widenov came back after long negotiations with the ODS opposition in favor of an interim government under Stefan Sofijanski.
Government of Ivan Kostov
In the early elections in April 1997, the SDS could ( again in a coalition with the ODS) win 1997, the absolute majority in parliament. Ivan Kostov was Bulgarian Prime Minister and chairman of the now organized as the Union Party. Another member, Petar Stoyanov, sparked this year from Zhelev as president.
The operations performed by Kostov unpopular but necessary for EU accession reforms led to the defeat of SDS in the 2001 elections, which won the National Movement Simeon the Second. The SDS was only 18.2 % of the vote and 51 of 240 seats.
After Kostov resigned after the election, took over for a short time Ekaterina Mikhailova and after her former Foreign Minister Nadejda Mikhailova the party chairmanship. 2002 President Stoyanov was replaced by the Socialist Georgi Parvanov. After Kostov 2004 left the party and the Democrats had established for a Strong Bulgaria, the SDS was further weakened and lost in the 2005 elections again. Now only came to 7.7 % and 20 of 240 seats, making it the fifth largest party, behind the right-wing coalition Ataka.
Party chairman from 2005 to 2007, the former President Petar Stoyanov. Following the failure of European elections, in which the SDS could obtain no single mandate, followed on 15 July 2007, the XVII. National Conference of SDS. The National Conference also elected a new party chairman - the businessman Plamen Jurukow.
In December 2008, all party members Martin Dimitrov was elected chairman of the party by secret ballot. This happened for the first time in the history of the party on the initiative of Plamen Jurukow who did not compete, but the second- binned Rumen Hristov supported.
For the European elections in Bulgaria in 2009 and the Bulgarian national elections on July 5, 2009, SDS entered as part of the Blue Coalition. After the European elections, the coalition was able to provide a deputy. In the parliamentary elections, they managed to convince 6.76 % of the electorate and put 15 deputies in the 41st Bulgarian Parliament again.
Chairman of the party
- Schelju Zhelev (1989-1990)
- Petar Beron (1990 )
- Filip Dimitrov (1990-1994)
- Ivan Kostov (1994-2001)
- Ekaterina Mikhailova (2001-2002)
- Nadezhda Mikhailova (2002-2005)
- Petar Stoyanov (2005-2007)
- Plamen Jurukow (15 July 2007-21. December 2008)
- Martin Dimitrov (21 December 2008-5. June 2012)
- Emil Kabaiwanow ( since 15 July 2012)