Urban guerrilla warfare
The urban guerrilla is a guerrilla who operates in urban / metropolitan environment. It takes strategies and methods of guerrilla who operates primarily in rural areas. When her inventor applies Michael Collins ( Ireland).
It is characteristic of the guerrilla / urban guerilla that they tried, often with militant means to make from the underground or the illegality out against certain political decisions, but in many cases also against a political system as a whole, and therefore against a ruling government resistance and their own political enforce the policies and objectives, where this is not possible or ineffective by means of a legal opposition after the militants consider or at least appears.
The resources of the urban guerrilla are varied. They range from public relations, such as the distribution of pamphlets to sabotage and other violent attacks, including kidnappings and assassinations may include.
The methodology of this understanding of urban guerrilla is equated by a ruling government rule with terrorism. The corresponding groups are considered terrorist organizations. An objective separation between illegitimate 'terrorism' and legitimate struggle for freedom is difficult to make and depends on the political position of the viewer, see also the illustration in the article terrorism.
The Cuban Revolution (1953-1959) created two different and competing strategies of resistance were then called Llano and Sierra. Llano ( plain or lowland ) referred to the primacy and leadership of the armed struggle in Cuban cities. Sierra (mountains ) on the other hand stood for a war starting from the rugged mountain and inland, as they embodied the movement of the July 26 ( M-26 -7) under Fidel Castro that led to the victory of the Cuban rebel army.
Another origin of the urban guerrilla was in Uruguay in the late 1960s. There, the Tupamaros operated relatively successfully in the capital Montevideo. They made the concept of urban guerrilla known worldwide. Your most important theorists was the Spanish nationals Abraham Guillén.
In Argentina, formed under the military dictatorship of urban guerrilla warfare, a number of revolutionary factions that operated in Buenos Aires and also in smaller cities, the Movimiento Peronista Montonero ( Montoneros ). Between 1969 and 1971, there were mass riots in Cordoba, Rosario and Mendoza, which were worn by the trade union base, where also took part in the urban guerrilla. 1973 the urban guerrillas ended up being the carrier of militant resistance against the increasingly reactionary course the new government Peron.
In Brazil in 1968 was also an urban guerrilla, which emerged mostly from the Communist parties. They came into existence, kidnappings and bank robberies with individual actions; their theorists was Carlos Marighella, co-founder of Ação Libertadora Nacional. Another group was the Comando Nacional de Libertação.
The Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional operated until 1977, almost exclusively as an urban guerrilla. Your most important theorists was Humberto Ortega.
In the early 1950s, developed the anti-apartheid movement called Mandela plan, which should prepare the underground struggle, especially in the urban environment of the townships. Later, the Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK ), the armed wing of the ANC acted, partly as urban guerrillas.
In loose, informal, personal, and political contexts that have been referred to as the "Blues ", created in the fall of 1969 in the western part of Berlin, the Tupamaros West Berlin. Parts of the "Blues " joined together in January 1972 to June 2 Movement. These groups and the publication of The Urban Guerrilla Concept of the Red Army Faction (RAF ) in April 1971 coined the term in the Federal Republic of Germany. The urban guerrilla tactics of the RAF was based strongly on Mao Zedong's book theory and practice of guerrilla warfare.