Venda was a Homeland in South Africa. It was set up for the ethnicity of the Venda. From 1979 to 1994 Venda was formally independent. The capital was Thohoyandou ( German: " head of the elephant ", the elephant is the totem animal of the clan of President until 1990).


Venda was an enclave within the then Transvaal province. It consisted of two areas, which lay in the north- east of South Africa in the Lowveld. The much larger area was located near to the borders with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. But it was not contiguous to these countries, but in South Africa or the Homeland Gazankulu in the south and in two areas of Lebowa homelands in the southwest. The smaller area was Vendas the west, south of the Soutpansberge. Between the two areas is the town of Louis Trichardt. The total area of ​​6875 km ² was Vendas.

From 520,000 in 1989 340,000 Venda lived in the home country. According to other data lived there 718 207 people (as of 1990).


On 1 June 1971 the area " Venda " was based on the Promotion of Bantu Self- Government Act (Act No. 46/1959 ) and the Bantu Homelands Constitution Act ( Act No. 1971. 21 / ) established on February 1, 1973 it was transferred to the status of self-government.

The first stage in the formation of an intrinsically governmental Homelands particular the Proclamation R12 of 26 January 1973 at the former Law Journal of South Africa. Thus, the seat of the self-governing bodies has been set to the location Sibasa and as an official language Venda. The Legislative Assembly ( Legislative Assembly ) of the self-governing region had 60 members, consisting of 25 Chiefs, headmen 2 of community authorities, 15 appointed by the Chiefs and 18 members chosen people. The assembly elected as its chairman a Chief Minister from among the Chiefs. This appointed his cabinet, consisting of five members, three of which had to be from among the Chiefs. The first election took place in August 1973 instead, from the Chief Patrick Mphephu ( National Party of Venda (NPV) ) as Chief emerged ministers, previously the Head (Chief Councillor ) of a national administration and the honorary title Khosikhulu: wore ( German " High Chief " ). In the elections, the opposition Venda Independence Party (VIP) won 13 of the 18 possible seats. Baldwin Mudau, a sociologist from Johannesburg, they had built. As leader of the opposition in the Legislative Assembly but had Chief Frank Ramovha.

On September 13, 1979, the Status of Venda Act (Act No. 107/1979 ) was adopted by the South African Parliament. With this law, the legal preparations for future Legislative Assembly ( Legislative Assembly ) were created, which is to decide in the wake of Venda laws and a constitution. This law also defined as the citizenship of Venda is to acquire and saw the formation of a joint Government Commission between South Africa and Venda before, which should make the final declarations and procedures for obtaining the state independence of the homelands.

Through the Republic of Venda Constitution Act (Act no. 9/1979 ) of 13 September 1979, the South African government established the constitutional foundations of Venda with the necessary structures. In this context, the Parliament of Venda, National Assembly ( National Assembly) called, which had to elect the President was born. This could appoint up to nine members of the government. The Legislative Assembly Vendas belonged to 42 elected and three appointed by the head of state representatives with "special knowledge and experience " and 42 tribal leaders (25 Chiefs and headmen 17 ).

Nine ministries formed the Executive Council ( Executive Council). According to the constitution were the ministries of Foreign Affairs, Interior, Justice, economy, urban development and land ownership, education, health and social affairs, agriculture and forestry, transportation, and work and communication. There were more public bodies are formed, these were an Office of National Security and the National Armed Forces ( National Force) with the President as a formal top commander.

The judiciary was composed of a Chief Justice ( Chief Justice ) with an indefinite number of other judges of the Supreme Court ( Supreme Court ); to appoint all by the President Vendas. The judge G. P. van Rhyn from the Northern Cape Division of the South African Supreme Court took the position of Chief Justice of Venda. Procedures for appeals against decisions of the Supreme Court of Venda had to be submitted to the South African Supreme Court. The Proclamation R93, published in Government Gazette No 2793 of 18 May 1979 and certain regulated the establishment of another court level, the High Court, with effect from 1 July 1979.

1982 in Thoyonandou founded the University of Venda, short Univention. The NPV of 1986-1990 was the only party permitted. Mphephu died on April 17 in 1988 and was replaced by Frank Nndwakhulu Ravhele, who also belonged to the NPV, and reigned until 5 April 1990. At that time the government was temporarily deposed by a popular uprising and the NPV prohibited. Ravheles successor was the military Ramushwana Gabriel, who served until January 25, 1994, it was replaced by the military Tshamano Gerso Ramabulana.

On April 27, 1994, the Homeland was reintegrated into South Africa and has been part of the Limpopo Province. Today Venda belongs to the district of Vhembe.


In addition to the Venda there were in the home country of minorities Shangaan and in the south a few Northern Sotho.


The area around Thohoyandou is growing area of subtropical fruits such as bananas and tobacco, corn, coffee and tea. The gross domestic product in 1989 was 688.2 million margin. Venda issued numerous stamps.