A volcano observatory is usually an institution for observation and research of active volcanic phenomena. The main tasks include the collection, cataloging and analysis of observational data ( "monitoring" ) data, the preparation of hazard and risk analysis and maps, advising decision -supporting bodies ( civil defense, emergency responders, etc ), public relations, as well as scientific analysis and publications. This task catalog has regionally and nationally often a different priority order.
Examples of Vulkanobservatorien
The oldest volcano observatory is founded in 1854, the Osservatorio Vesuviano in Naples (Italy). Catastrophic volcanic eruptions have historically always had a high priority to the establishment of new observatories: the eruption of Pele on the Caribbean island of Martinique, led to the creation of the world's second volcano observatory, the Observatoire Volcanologique de la Montagne Pelée ( present name ) by Frank Perret, Albert Brun and Alfred Lacroix, and added in a long ways to the creation of ' Hawaiian Volcano Observatory ' by Thomas Jaggar, Jr. - all four volcanologists were among the first, strongly impressed visiting scientists of Pelé after the outbreak. The eruption of St. Helens volcano in Washington state in 1881 led to the establishment of the ' Cascades Volcano Observatory ' ( CVO ). The three observatories with the most volcanoes in their " patient records " are the " Alaskan Volcano Observatory ' (AVO, United States), the ' Southern Andes Volcano Observatory ' ( OVDAS, Chile ), and the ' Seismic Research Unit ' (SRU, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies ). In Iceland, the Meteorological Institute of Iceland is responsible for volcano monitoring in close cooperation with the Geological Institute of the University of Iceland.
Methods of volcano monitoring and observation
Some important instruments of volcano observation are seismographs, tiltmeters, GPS, radar interferometry, temperature measurements, gas chemical analyzes, well logs, and geological field observation.
Volcano watching is possible in the digital age in part, from a distance, both by satellite-based remote sensing and wireless data remote transmission of measurement instruments, as well as by international data exchange (eg the GEOWARN project of the European Union). However, this does not lead to a reduction in costs, but to be more efficient in case of disaster. International efforts are underway to enable a fast and harmonized transnational data exchange.