Voskhod 1 [ vasxɔt ] (alternative spelling Voskhod, Russian Восход " sunrise " ) was a Soviet manned space flight. For the first time in the world a more seater spacecraft was launched into orbit, and for the first time were among the astronauts mission scientists.
- Vladimir Mikhailovich Komarov ( 1 flight ) commander
- Boris Borisovich Yegorov, ( first flight ) Doctor
- Konstantin Feoktistow, ( first flight ) Engineering
- Boris Valentinovich Wolynow, Commander
- Georgi Petrovich Katy, Science cosmonaut
- Alexei Vasilyevich Sorokin, doctor
After having Vostok 5 and Vostok 6 a successful group flight was conducted in June 1963, who had a hand brought a new permanent record and on the other hand, the first woman in space, the Soviet manned space flight was in crisis. The performance of the Vostok spacecraft was maxed out. Other spectacular firsts were therefore no longer to be expected.
The Americans prepared the Gemini program, the controllable two-man spaceships were also provided for couplings. The first unmanned test flight took place in April 1964, the first manned launch was planned for early 1965.
In this phase, the Soviet leadership to carry out any further Wostokflüge more and to bring instead with converted Vostok spacecraft several astronauts into orbit decided. This new space ship type was called Voskhod.
An unmanned Voskhod spacecraft was launched under the code name Cosmos 47 on October 6, 1964 and brought back to Earth after 24 hours. This a test was enough to venture out a manned launch with three cosmonauts on board a few days.
The selection of the crew was complex, because now not only more trained pilots came as a cosmonaut in question, but also other occupational groups. Moreover, not only the training played a role, but also lobbying.
In March 1964 it was decided that Voskhod 1, each with a cosmonaut as a commander, a doctor and an engineer should be occupied.
As a cosmonaut who was to control the spaceship, came those Cosmonauts first selection group in question, which had been excellent in training, but had still not attend the spacecraft, namely Boris Wolynow, Yevgeny Khrunov, Pavel Belyayev, Alexei Leonov and Vladimir Komarov. Another candidate was Georgi Beregowoi, which provoked political pressure later on cosmonauts group. This selection was reduced in May 1964 on Wolynow, Komarov, Leonov and Khrunov.
Four doctors came for another place aboard Voskhod 1 in question: Boris Yegorov, Boris Polyakov, Vasily Lazarev and Alexei Sorokin.
Third place on board should take a scientist or engineer. First Georgi Katy was the only candidate, but later presented Sergei Korolyov, the head of the design office, other potential cosmonauts, including Konstantin Feoktistow, Vladislav Volkov, Georgi Grechko, Valery Kubasov, Oleg Makarov and Nikolai Rukavishnikov.
In July 1964 there were only seven candidates for three Voskhod - places: Komarov and Wolynow as commander, Feoktistow and Katy as a scientist, and Yegorov, Sorokin and Lazarev as a doctor.
Nikolai Kamanin, head of cosmonaut training, elected on July 6 Wolynow, Katy's and Yegorov as the main team. The backup crew was formed from Komarov, Feoktistow and Sorokin.
Korolev tried through various channels, nor to press his engineer Feoktistow in the main team. Although it was undisputed that Feoktistow as a designer had excellent knowledge of the spaceship, but had doubts about his health condition. Above all, his vision was severely impaired.
Katy was removed from the captaincy, when it became known that his father was executed as an enemy of the state and that he has siblings who lived in France. With that he was unsuitable as a cosmonaut.
In October fell on a higher level, the choice to Komarov, Yegorov and Feoktistow.
History of the flight
Voskhod 1 launched on October 12, 1964 at 07:30 UT clock from the launch complex in Baikonur 1 and reached just under nine minutes, the unforeseen orbit. During the second orbit, the crew sent a message of greetings to the Olympic Games in Tokyo, later television pictures from the Command Module was transferred. From Moscow to the state and party leader Nikita Khrushchev spoke with the team.
The duration of the space flight was relatively short with 24 hours. Maybe he was not planned longer, maybe the landing was initiated prematurely, either because of space sickness a cosmonaut, whether due to the political situation in Moscow, where Khrushchev was ousted just.
The landing of Voskhod 1 was the next day at 07:47 UT clock. The landing site was approximately 54 ° 2 ' North, 68 ° 8' east, about 300 km north- west of Kustanai. In contrast to the Vostok spacecraft cosmonauts were not ejected with the ejection seat, but ended up with the landing capsule. For this, the capsule was decelerated shortly before landing with special missiles. The three cosmonauts increased independently from the capsule landed, waiting for the rescue teams.
The team was taken to the nearest major city Kustanai, but the usual call of Khrushchev came. On the following day, October 14, the cosmonauts returned back to Baikonur, where gradually became clear that extraordinary events took place in Moscow. The originally planned reception on the Red Square was canceled, the cosmonauts flew on 19 October 1964 following Moscow, where they were received by the new government leader Leonid Brezhnev.
As the Wostokflüge also attracted Voskhod 1 worldwide sensation. Even before the Americans had launched a two-seat spaceship, the Soviets had launched a three-seater into orbit. The fact that only one of the three cosmonauts was a trained pilot, and that no space suits were used, let implies a high reliability of the Voskhod.
While the development of the Soyuz spaceship further delayed, the Soviets were planning further Voskhod flights. For the spring of 1965 a two-man flight was provided with Voskhod 2, in which a cosmonaut would leave for the first time a spacecraft. Furthermore, long-term flights and flights with a female crew were provided.
External links and sources
- Sven Grahn: The flight of Voskhod -1, what a surprise! (English)
- Spacefacts.de: Voskhod 1
- Space.kursknet.ru: Voskhod 1 ( English / Russian )
- NSSDC Master Catalog: Voskhod 1 (English)
- Первые пилотируемые космические корабли " Восток " и " Восход " (Russian )
Vostok: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 Voskhod: 1 · 2 · 3
Cosmos: 47 · 57 · 110
- Voskhod program
- Soviet and Russian space
- Space mission in 1964