The county Witt mouth is a district in the north-west of Lower Saxony and one of East Frisia. He is after Lüchow- Dannenberg by population is the second smallest district in Lower Saxony, Germany. County seat is the city Witt mouth.
- 2.1 Population
- 3.1 District
- 3.2 Kreistag
- 3.3 Coat of Arms
- 4.1 traffic 4.1.1 Road Traffic
- 4.1.2 Rail transport
- 4.1.3 vessel traffic
The county Witt mouth on the west by the district of Aurich, in the north of the county has a coastline along the North Sea, in the east it borders on the district of Friesland and in the south briefly at the district of Leer. The circle area include not only the communities on the mainland and the two offshore East Frisian Islands Langeoog and Spiekeroog. A large part of the land includes the historic land Harlingerland.
Of the total area are on the land surface (as of 1 January 2007) 50 368 hectares of agricultural land, 3,889 acres of buildings and open spaces and almost as many forest areas ( 3,880 hectares). The remaining surfaces form surfaces of other use ( 3,089 acres ), traffic areas ( 2,512 acres ), water areas ( 1,525 acres ), recreational areas (228 hectares) and operating areas (175 hectares).
The county Witt mouth built in 1885 from the offices Witt mouth and Esen and Esen city. County seat was Witt mouth.
In the course of 1977 conducted district reform in Saxony, the county Witt mouth was dissolved and merged with the municipalities of Jever, Sands, Wilhelmshaven, Wanger country Wangerooge of the district of Friesland to a new district of Friesland. County seat was Witt mouth.
Due to a constitutional complaint with the Constitutional Court in Lower Saxony Lower Saxony state parliament has Biickeburg the district reform January 1, 1980 changed again and restored the counties Ammer, Friesland and Witt mouth in their original form.
The county Witt mouth has experienced above-average population growth since the nineties by local standards. The number of inhabitants increased between 1996 and 2006 by around 2200. This figure resulted from a migration surplus of 2278 individuals with a birth deficit of minus 77 The proportion of under- 20 year olds in the population is 22.5 percent, the is slightly more than the average West Germany of 20.7 %. The proportion of over- 65 -year-olds was slightly higher: 20 % versus 19.5%.
For new District Köring Matthias was elected on 24 January 2010. He was by then First District Councilor and thus the first deputy of his predecessor, Henning Schultz, who fired on grounds of age his office. Schultz had been the first full-time elected District since 1998. While the CDU Schultz belonged Köring was worn during the election campaign by a broad coalition of CDU, SPD and FDP. Between 1964 and 1977, and from 1980 was Hermann Creutzberg (CDU ) District.
The previous district administrators were:
- Karl Lodemann (April 1, 1885 - November 14, 1889 )
- Bruno Alsen (20 November 1889 - 10 December 1897 )
- Dr. Ernst Budde (December 1, 1897 - June 15, 1911 )
- Max Schramm (June 15, 1911 - December 31, 1929 )
- Karl Liebenow (January 2, 1930 - July 1, 1933 )
- Hans Berger Kreutz (October 9, 1933 - July 21, 1937 )
- Adolf of Nassau ( August 2, 1937 - May 12 1945)
- Eberhard Buisman (April 8, 1946 - October 31, 1946 )
- Reinhard Onken (November 1, 1946 - October 20, 1964 )
- Hermann Creutzberg (1964 - 1977)
- Hermann Ehlts ( August 1977 - December 31st 1979)
- Hermann Creutzberg (1980 - 1991)
- Werner Schmidt (11 November 1991 - 31 March 1998) last volunteer District
Senior district directors:
- Onke Oncken (April 1, 1946 - June 30, 1957 )
- Heinrich Strauss ( July 1, 1957 - May 31, 1974)
- Rudolf Hoyer (1 June 1974 - 30 June 1977)
- Dr. Eckart Bode (August 1, 1977 - December 31, 1979 )
- Dieter- Joachim Bannowsky (January 1, 1980 - September 30, 1980 )
- Dr. Christian von Arnswaldt ( 1 October 1980 - August 25, 1985)
- Henning Schultz (1 April 1986 - 31 March 1998)
Full-time District Administrators:
- Henning Schultz (1 April 1998 - 31 December 2009)
- Matthias Köring ( since 6 January 2010)
The council belong to 42 elected members and the district administrator. Since the September 11, 2011 it belong to eight parties or voter communities. In the election period 2006-2011 there were seven, for the preceding five.
Composition of the county since the local elections on 11 September 2011:
- CDU - 17 seats ( 41.83 %)
- SPD - 16 seats ( 37.94 %)
- Alliance 90/The Greens - 4 seats ( 9.91% )
- FDP - 1 seat ( 2.75% )
- EBI (CDU / Esen ) - 1 seat ( 2.50% )
- The Left - 1 seat ( 1.83% )
- BFB (CDU / Witt mouth) - 1 seat ( 1.67% )
- FWG (CDU / total district ) - 1 seat ( 1.44% )
CDU, SPD and FDP, which had already worked in the previous term, renewed 21 October 2011 their agreement to cooperate. They are ( to 2016) hold also in the current parliamentary term, the overwhelming majority in the council: 34 out of 42 votes. Then there is the also supported by these three parties District.
Coat of arms
On the crest of a golden cog is depicted with three sails. On the sails are the pictures of a black bear, two crossed whips and a double eagle. It was in 1951 awarded to the circle.
Economy and infrastructure
The economy is dominated by agriculture and tourism as well as a variety of medium-sized and family businesses. The county is considered to be structurally weak.
According to a survey of regional business portal Regis -Online there were nearly 11,600 employees at the end of March 2007 in the district. Above-average growth of trade, the hospitality industry and the transport sector is represented in the coastal county: Here work 32.1 percent of employees ( national average: 23.6 %). Stronger than the national average are also in construction ( 11.4 % / collar: 5.4%) and agriculture (2.2% / collar: 0.9%). The service sector is slightly below average, the sector of the manufacturing sector, however, well below average. Here, the general peripheral location, but also the seclusion likely to be reflected by the main roads of the region. The largest industrial employer in the county is a work of the window manufacturer Rehau in the district town with about 500 employees. Otherwise, is the southernmost municipality of the district, peace Castle, still the most industrialized. In 17 industries worked in 2006 around 1,350 people. A large public employer is the Richthofen Squadron of the Air Force in Witt mouth, another the standing under the auspices of the district hospital Witt mouth. Many commuters from the district Witt mouth work in Wilhelmshaven, sometimes even in Aurich and Emden at the local larger companies. The county recorded June 30, 2006, a total 6748 commuters and 10,074 commuters, resulting in a surplus of commuters 3326 employees.
The unemployment rate was 6.2 percent in August 2010. She was above the national average. The highest levels of unemployment arising in the March statistics if tourism is not yet in operation and construction often prevails winter unemployment.
The trade tax revenue in the community Friedeburg by far the highest in the district, but do not reach the Lower Saxony average.
In the district there is no highway. The nearest connection options on the German motorway network are available at the federal motorway A 29, specifically at the connection points Wilhelmshaven Cross, sands or Varel / Obenstrohe. In the west ( to Leer and Emsland in the direction or the Netherlands) are the nearest motorway junctions, the junctions Remels and Filsum on the A 28
Four main roads in the district are available. About local and the most important is the B 210, which runs from Emden and Aurich Witt mouth to Jever and Wilhelmshaven. In addition, the B secures 436 of Leer to sand the connection of the southern county area, especially the community peace Castle, on the motorway network. The B 437 begins in Friedeburger district Strudden on the B 436 and performs on the A 29 at Varel and the Weser tunnel to the A27 south of Bremerhaven.
A nationwide specialty is the B 461: You only performs a local authority, namely the county seat Witt mouth. As a branch of the B 210 leads north to the coastal part Carolinensiel.
Many federal, state, county and township roads there are separately guided bike paths that were not created in the course of the last cycle tourism promotion.
The North Western Railway operates the rail links in the district Witt mouth. In the district there are three stations: in Witt mouth, Esen and Burhafe. The compounds of lead Esen about Burhafe and Witt mouth and on about Jever to Wilhelmshaven to Oldenburg respectively.
The first railway line in Wittmund was in 1883 by the Prussian State Railway of Emden on the north by Esen - led Witt mouth; she completed further east to the county boundary to the Oldenburg State Railways.
The further development of the area - especially from the district of Aurich ago - served the orbit spaces Aurich -Witt mouth, which was also the Wittmund was involved. In Ogenbargen the main line divided: one branch led from 1899 by Witt mouth, the other to the harbor Bensersiel, where the ships depart from 1909 by Esen and after Langeoog.
On the mainland, the network included 51 km of which now lie still 33 km:
Ogenbargen - Brill - Esen 9 km ( meter gauge )
On both for Wittmund islands belonging emerged island paths that linked the port to the island village:
The Frankfurt-based bank from Erlanger & Sons 1888/90 was built as a feeder to the island Wangerooge train Jever - Harle was entirely on oldenburgischem area, but also served as the lying in Wittmund places Carolinensiel and Harle, whose names wore two stations.
A reactivation of the rail links to the west ( or north to Aurich ) for connecting the JadeWeserPort with Emden to be examined (as of February 2008).
From Bensersiel from where ferries depart to Langeoog, the neighboring island Spiekeroog is powered by Neuharlingersiel from.
Through the southern district area also leads the Ems - Jade Canal, which, however, only serves the recreational boating ( in this section). In Friedeburger district Upschört is a lock.
In the district Witt mouth, there are 14 primary schools, six secondary schools, five middle schools, three high schools, three special schools and a vocational school. Among the high schools include the school in the county town, the Lower Saxony boarding school Esen ( NIGERIA ) and the Hermann Lietz - Schule Spiekeroog ( boarding school ).
Nearby universities are located in Emden ( College Emden / Leer ), Wilhelmshaven ( Jade University ) and Oldenburg (Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg).
Cities and Towns
The county Witt mouth consists of four unit communities and two joint communities with a total of 15 member municipalities.
In brackets the number of inhabitants of 31 December 2012.
Joint communities with their member communities
* Head Samtgemeinde management
- 2 Samtgemeinde Holtriem ( 9184 )
The Sunstone of Horsten is a bronzzeitlicher stone granite porphyry with 17 concentric circles.