World energy consumption
The global energy demand is the amount of primary energy, which is required in the world. In 2010, it stood at 505 EJ / a ( EJ per year, 1 EJ = 1018 joules) or about 140 PWh / a ( petawatt per year, 1 PWh = 1015 Wh).
The world demand for electrical energy makes up about 17% of it. In Germany in 2010 about 14 EJ ( about 3.9 PWh ) primary energy were needed. This among other things, about 580 TWh ( 1 TWh = 1012 Wh) were generated on electrical energy. 505 EJ per year correspond to an average total capacity of about 16.0 TW (1 TW = 1012 W) with a share of 2.7 TW of electrical energy.
Energy demand by region
From 1990 to 2008, the energy consumption per capita increased by 10%, while the world population grew by 27%. The world energy demand increased by 39 %. The highest increases were in the Middle East with 170%, in China with 146% and in India with 91%. The U.S., the EU -27 countries and China had a share of 50 % of the world's energy needs, with a population share of 32% ( 2008). The increase in consumption between 1990 and 2008 was 40.1 billion kWh. Of this, China accounted for 14.7 billion kWh, the Middle East 4.4 billion kWh and 4.4 billion kWh to the United States.
In 2008, the energy demand of China and India was at 37 % share of the world's population, 22.5 % of the world's energy needs. 1990, it was 13.5 % with a nearly equal population. The energy use per capita in India ( 6,280 kWh / capita) and China ( 18,608 kWh / capita) was below the average in the world ( 21,283 kWh / capita) (2008).
The average energy requirement was 2008 21.283 kWh / capita, the USA ( 87 216 kWh / capita), Europe ( 40 821 kWh / capita) and the Middle East ( 34 774 kWh / capita) are significantly higher.
It also energy imports and exports were included.
According to calculations by the anthropologist Marshall Sahlins, worldwide energy consumption per capita per year has remained almost constant until the beginning of the industrial revolution.
The world demand for energy is increasing sharply. By 2030 an increase in demand of about half is on 160.500 billion kWh by 2060 in about a further doubling to 321,000 billion kWh prognostiziert.Der BP Energy Outlook 2035spricht of 41 % additional demand to 2035. Primary reason is that expected by then the standard of living will strongly aligned with the standard of living in the Western industrialized nations - in emerging developing and emerging countries - especially China and India.
Currently, around 85 % of global energy needs are supplied by fossil fuels. The reasons for this are both technological as well as economic. According to the Copenhagen Consensus Center, the consumption of fossil fuels, regardless of the current efforts of the climate policy in the coming decades will not increase. According to conservative estimates, the world energy demand will double by 2050 at least. This is a major reason that fossil fuels will play a major role in meeting the world 's energy needs in this century to far.
Due to the limited fossil resources, the growing energy demand can not be met approximately. Therefore support measures be established to develop new energy sources worldwide.
Energy costs increase
- An increase in the barrel price of oil to $ 1 corresponds to an additional burden on the economy of $ 31 billion a year with a consumption of 85 million barrels / day worldwide. If a long-term increase gas prices by the same amount, the value doubled to about $ 60 billion annually.
- The current increase in oil prices of $ 25 (2002) to $ 100 in 2011, thus causing an additional cost of $ 2.325 trillion per year.
- For Germany to a $ 75 increase in price per barrel is an economic burden of $ 60 billion annually, with a consumption of 800 million barrels / year
- An increase in the price of electricity by one euro cent per kilowatt- hour is equivalent to an additional burden of 180 billion euros per year worldwide.
- For Germany, an electricity price increase of one euro cent per kilowatt- hour means an economic burden of 5.5 billion euros annually.