Xu Shichang (Chinese徐世昌, Pinyin Xu Shichang, W.-G. Hsu Shih -ch'ang; born October 20, 1855 in Weihui, Henan Chinese Empire, † June 6, 1939 in Tianjin, Hebei ) was a high-ranking politicians both in Imperial China and in the Republic of China. In the Chinese Republic, he was president. His style name is Juren (Chinese菊 人, Pinyin juren )
Early years and career before and after the Chinese Revolution of 1911
Although the city was his ancestors Yinxian ( today's town Yinzhou District ) in the sub- provincial city of Ningbo in Zhejiang province, however, he was educated in the Weihui ( Henan Province ) after the death of his father by his mother with a heavy hand. Although he grew up here in rather poor circumstances, he enjoyed from his teacher, a government official, but a morally upstanding training, his mother was very strict in his dealings. One of his closest friends was early Yuan Shikai, whose family fostered his rise. He made it to the viceroy of Manchuria. As the end of the Qing Dynasty was already apparent, he was made because of his organization talent and his contributions to an administrative reform of the army on the Western model - despite the fact that he was a civilian - Chief of Staff. In services of his friend Yuan Shikai, China's strong man at this time, since 1914 Minister of Foreign Affairs, he joined in late 1915 in protest because of its own imperial ambitions back: he took his offices again, as Yuan abolished the monarchy. After Yuan's death, he became in 1917 one of two prime ministers (on the side of the Army General Duan Qirui ) under the President Feng Guozhang.
President of the Republic of China
His own election as president on 10 October 1918, largely directed by the Beiyang Army generals at the head of their rival '' cliques '' as Duan Qirui and Feng Guozheng, because although he had no real military power as a civilian, but close connections to the Beiyang Army entertained. He also remained neutral with respect to the points arising from this warlord cliques. As a result, had to Xu Duan Qirui, Cao Kun, a Zhili - leader of the Northern militarists, and Zhang Zuo-lin, leader of the Fengtian clique that wanted to declare a separate republic in this so-called warlord era, as long as possible off against each other to his post to keep.
1919 leaked news through out Europe that Duan Qirui had the Versailles intended by the main victorious powers in the context of the peace treaty handing over the former German possessions in Shandong Province approved ( Jiaozhou Bay ) in Japan, after which there was unrest, the broad support in the population found. These known as the May 4th Movement of mass protests was reflected Xu by letting prostrate and imprison the ringleaders. As a result broke the coalition between the Zhili and Anhui clique, and Duan remained as a political loser on the track. The warlord era had reached its peak. The conflicts with the Republican southeast China continues to smolder while. After Xu also failed to incorporate Mongolia again urged Cao Kun, the successor of Duan in the Zhili clique and from the outset an opponent by Xu, him on June 2, 1922 from the office and sat Li Yanhong as president who had accompanied this office prior to the presidency of Feng Guozhang.
Xu was also afterwards with the government circles in Tianjin, but also Beijing, in contact and signed up - especially against the Japanese aggressors to speak. Even if they attempted him - unsuccessfully - to ensnare as a political figure who still came from the Empire. In the spring of 1939 worsened a bladder infection, so he should be brought to Beijing for treatment. He refused for fear of kidnapping by the Japanese and died aged 85 in Tianjin. Xu should go down as president with the longest tenure during the warlord era in China's history.