Yakutsk (Russian Якутск, Yakut Дьокуускай / Dschokuuskaj ) is the capital of the Republic of Sakha ( Yakutia) in the Russian Far East Federal District. It has 269 601 inhabitants (as of October 14, 2010 ) and along the Lena River. The city has a climate similar to the nearly 700 kilometers to Oymyakon, the Pole of Cold of the inhabited areas of the earth, and is therefore considered coldest big city.
Yakutsk is the capital of Yakutia, on the river Lena. The distance to Moscow is just under 4900 km ( straight line ) and the time difference of six hours. The extreme climatic conditions present a challenge in many ways. For example, most of the houses have to be built on concrete stilts, so they do not destabilize the underlying permafrost by thawing. In order to produce drinking water from groundwater, wells have to be drilled, which break through the hundreds of meters thick permafrost layer. The water is but today mainly taken from the Lena. Many motors run continuously in the winter, otherwise they will be damaged or no longer in the morning would start at temperatures below -50 ° C due to outside temperatures. School's out there is only below -50 ° C.
In Yakutsk prevail extreme continental climate: In January, the coldest month of the year, the average temperature is -43.2 ° C. In summer, temperatures rise often above 30 ° C ( In rare cases, already 38 ° C was measured ). The July average is 18.8 ° C even higher than the corresponding value in Germany (approx. 18 ° C). The difference between the measured temperature is far above 100 Kelvin.
The town originated in the middle of the 17th century from a Ostrog, so one of a picket fence surrounding settlement, as they were established in the course of the Russian conquest of Siberia in many places. This Ostrog Built in 1632 on the right side of the Lena and in 1643 transferred to the left.
In the first century after the city was founded in Yakutsk lived almost exclusively Russian. From the middle of the 18th century, however, also Yakuts settled in the city. In the 19th century they already put a good third of the population.
Since its inception, Yakutsk was the starting point for a variety of expeditions to explore Siberia. In the course stayed in the city, among other Semyon Deschnjow, Vitus Bering and Ferdinand von Wrangel.
During the Russian Civil War Yakutsk was taken in the summer of 1918 by the White Army and remained until December 1919 under their rule.
2004, the urban settlements Kangalassy and Marcha were incorporated to Yakutsk.
Note: Census data
Economy and infrastructure
The connection to the Russian road network is only intermittently since the highway M56 from Newer about Tynda on the right bank of the Lena arrives ( settlement Nizhny Bestjach ), but the city is left of the Lena. The traffic runs in the summer with ferries in winter over the ice. In spring and autumn, however, is a crossing of the river in the meantime, depending on ice conditions is not possible. During this time, Yakutsk is only accessible via the Airport Yakutsk ( YKS ).
A rail link to the Baikal - Amur Mainline and the Trans-Siberian Railway, the Amur - Yakutian highway is under construction for several years, but the completion is delayed again and again due to financial reasons.
Yakutsk is the seat of Yakutia Airlines, a regional airline.
Besides Marschrutka ( line taxis) take bus 16 to the inner-city traffic. Their operation was awarded to a private company in 2011.
Educational and scientific institutions
In Yakutsk, there is a seat of the Yakutian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Yakutsk has a university and several specialized institutions.