Yale Romanization

Yale Romanization called four developed during World War II for use by the armed forces of the United States romanization systems for East Asian languages, Mandarin Chinese, Cantonese, Korean, and Japanese.

However, the four Lautumschriften are separate language-related systems. A letter may vary according to the transcribed language stand for different sounds. The Yale Umschriftsysteme were also used in the United States partly in teaching East Asian languages ​​in schools and universities, find for Chinese and Korean but today hardly use. For the Chinese education, for example, the standardized Hanyu Pinyin romanization used in the People's Republic of China has prevailed.

Mandarin Chinese

Mandarin Yale has been developed with the intent to facilitate the communication of US- American military staff with allied Chinese forces. Instead of the then common romanization system, the Wade- Giles to take over, you preferred to introduce a new system, which further meets the needs of English-language readers.

This should problems that occurred when using the Wade-Giles system, are avoided. For example, on the " Behauchungszeichen " omitted (in the form of an apostrophe ), with which distinguished among others between the sounds [ tɕ ] and [ tɕ ʰ ]. In Wade- Giles the first sound with chi, the second is played with ch'i. In the Yale romanization, however ji and chi is written.

Compared with the Yale Pinyin system has the advantage that it uses Latin letters and letter combinations in a way that benefit the pronunciation adopted by an English-speaking reader closer. For example, is at Yale ch for both [ tʂ ʰ ] as well as [ tɕ ʰ ], in Pinyin, however, ch, or q. For xi in Pinyin is syi written at Yale and for zh in Pinyin is jr at Yale.


Unlike Mandarin Yale Cantonese Yale romanization for the Cantonese is still widely used. As Chinese characters usually correspond to a syllable, they can transcribe as a combination of initial position and final position with marking of tone by diacritics or numbers in Latin.

Initial sound ( Shengmu声母)

Final position ( Yunmu韵母)

Clay molds

Three of the tones in Cantonese are so-called ru - tones ( Rusheng入声) that occur only in syllables that end with -p,- t, or -k. Cantonese Yale therefore used to describe three diacritical marks and the letter h or alternatively numbers 1-6 according to the following table:

In Hong Kong space is made by most speakers no more distinction between the high and the high falling tone. This is reflected in the use of numbers as audio tone resist, where both sounds are merged.



Korean Yale was also developed by Samuel Elmo Martin at Yale University and is still used today. However, it is increasingly being replaced in official use in South Korea and also in language teaching from the McCune - Reischauer -based romanization Revised, which has been developed by the National Academy of the Korean language and published by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism in 2000.