Yaroslav the Wise
Yaroslav Vladimirovich I., called the Wise ( Russian Мудрый ), from the House of Rurik (* 979/86; † February 20, 1054 ), Grand Prince of Kiev ( 1019-1054 ). Son of Vladimir I, the saints, and Rognedas of Polotsk.
The Rurik belonged to the Rus, the skandinavischstämmigen elite who settled since the mid-9th century under the Eastern Slavs and founded the kingdom of Kievan Rus. The Rurik were largely slavicized until the end of the 10th century. Yaroslav's father Vladimir was 988, the first Grand Prince of Kiev, who accepted Christianity and thus significantly contributed to the rise of Kiev to the East Slavic hegemony power.
Between 987 and 1010 was Yaroslav prince of Rostov. According to legend, he should at 1010 defeated a mighty bear in the fight and have established at this point, the city of Yaroslavl.
Jaroslaw had from his father after the death of the elder brother and heir -designate Wyscheslaw been awarded on the wealthy trading city of Novgorod the rule. 1014 Jaroslaw refused to his father to pay the toll. At a campaign against his son Vladimir did not happen anymore, because Vladimir died on 15 July 1015.
But immediately began succession struggles between Yaroslav and his brothers and uncles (see also Boris and Gleb ). Initially, half-brother Yaroslav Sviatopolk could prevail with the help of his father, the Polish King Boleslaw I.. Jaroslaw but remained in Novgorod. Then he put together an army of Scandinavian warriors and hit in late summer 1016 Sviatopolk. In the summer of 1017 Yaroslav I. and Emperor Henry II attacked a prior agreement following on Boleslaw I of two sides. The following summer, Boleslaw succeeded to conquer Kiev. Although Yaroslav fled to Novgorod, his female relatives and a large pot of gold but fell into the hands of the Polish king. Shortly thereafter, Jaroslaw drove the Sviatopolk used again as Grand Duke of Kiev again.
From 1029 to 1031, the scenario was repeated from 1017: Again Poland was from the West, now of Conrad II, and attacked from the east by Jaroslaw. This time it succeeded the Grand Duke to conquer large areas with an important castle belt for Kiev and briefly to suit his or her eldest son of the late Boleslaw in 1025 and brother of ruling over Poland Mieszko II Lambert, Bezprym to install as ruler in Poland. After the assassination Bezpryms in 1032 Mieszko gained back his rule.
1035 around Jaroslaw started with a far-reaching marriage policy. He married Ingigerd, the daughter of Olof Skötkonungs of Sweden. His sons and daughters were in the royal houses of France (Anna ), Norway, Hungary, Byzantium and married to German princes. The Polish pretender Casimir married a sister of Yaroslav, Maria Dobroniega, with whose help he was able to prevail as king of Poland.
1036 won Yaroslav I the decisive victory against the horsemen of the Pechenegs. 1043 a fleet failed attack on Constantinople Opel.
1019 adopted the Russkaya Pravda Yaroslav I., the first Russian Collection of Laws. It provides a mixture of Byzantine and Slavic laws customary law dar. In addition, he tried with extensive succession planning to avoid inheritance disputes after his death, which did not succeed. Rather, he founded the Senioratsprinzip, which in the following centuries, one reason was that the Russian principalities could barely stabilize as a fixed rule associations. On the Russkaya Pravda and the creation of Senioratsprinzips based his nickname the way. Other achievements he won by the city of Kiev and Novgorod expansion, especially with Sophie cathedrals of the two cities. His coffin is today in the Cathedral of St. Sophia of Kiev.
Marriage and issue
He married the Swedish princess IngeGerd (* 1001, † 1050) daughter of the Swedish king Olof Skötkonung and his wife Edla. They had five sons and three daughters:
- Vladimir II Holti (* 1020, † October 4, 1052 ) Prince of Novgorod
- Elizabeth of Kiev, ∞ Harald III. King of Norway
- Anastasia of Kiev (* 1023, † ca 1074 ), ∞ Andrew I. King of Hungary
- Izjaslav I. ( * 1024, † 1078 ), Grand Prince of Kiev, ∞ Gertrude of Poland, daughter of the Polish King Mieszko II Lambert
- Sviatoslav II (* 1027, † 1076 ), Grand Prince of Kiev
- Vsevolod I. (* 1030, † April 13, 1093 ), Grand Prince of Kiev, ∞ Irina, daughter of the Byzantine emperor Constantine IX.
- Anne of Kiev (c. 1024-1035; † around 1075 to 1089 ), ∞ Henry I King of France
- Igor Yaroslavich of Vladimir († 1060 ), Prince of Vladimir
2010 filmed the Russian director Dmitri Korobkin the legend of the founding of the city of Yaroslavl under the title: Knight Prince Yaroslav - Attack of the Barbarians.