Yaroslavsky railway station
The railway station Yaroslavl (Russian Ярославский вокзал, scientific transliteration Jaroslavskij vokzal ) is a major railway terminus in the Russian capital Moscow. It was built in 1862 and is one of the oldest railway hubs of the city. It is the starting point of the Trans-Siberian Railway, the longest railway in the world. From here, start trains to northern Russia, the Urals, Siberia and the Russian Far East as well as in Mongolia and the People's Republic of China.
Besides being a major transportation hub, the Yaroslavsky railway station with its reception building, which was rebuilt by the famous Art Nouveau architect Fyodor Schechtel early 20th century, an important monument of Russian architecture of that time dar.
- 4.1 Regional Connections
- 4.2 Remote Connections
- 6.1 Notes and references
- 6.2 Literature
The Yaroslavl train station is just outside the historic center of Moscow today, Komsomolskaya Square. In its immediate vicinity are two other railway stations: left adjacent the Leningrad station and diagonally opposite, on the south side of the square, the Kazan railway station. For this reason, the Komsomolskaya Square is unofficially often referred to as the square of the three stations. In addition, the regional station Kalantschowskaja adjacent to the square, from which there are train connections to three other railway stations of the city.
In addition to rail lines of the Yaroslavl railway station, as well as the two adjacent stations, has connection to the Moscow metro network: Directly under the Komsomolskaya Square, the two stations Komsomolskaya are the Sokolnicheskaya and Koltsevaya line. Addition, the space is served by several tram and trolleybus lines.
Moscow - Yaroslavl - Arkhangelsk Railway
The early history of Yaroslavl railway station is connected mainly with the construction of a number of railway lines in the north of the European part of Russia. These routes that connect cities like Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Vologda, Arkhangelsk or with Moscow and with each other, were all composed in the second half of the 19th century, during a railroad construction boom in the Russian Empire. At this time they were from a stock corporation established specifically for this purpose, the Society of the Moscow - Yaroslavl - Arkhangelsk Railway ( Общество Московско - Ярославско - Архангельской железной дороги ) operated, which was financed by private investors. This distinguished the Moscow - Yaroslavl - Arkhangelsk railroad from a few years earlier built Nikolai train, which was from the outset owned by the state because of their high strategic importance.
The oldest part of the route Moscow - Yaroslavl - Arkhangelsk Railway was built a few years after the took place on May 29, 1859 incorporation. It is the 70 -kilometer-long railway line between Moscow and the city of Sergiev Posad, in which was the famous Trinity Monastery. Since the latter is revered in the Russian Orthodox Church as a sanctuary and therefore had attracted crowds of pilgrims regularly, recognized in the 1850s some business owners the benefits of a rail link of the place of the old Tsarist capital. First was a continuation of the route over Sergiev Posad also not mentioned. As the main initiator of the route construction of military engineer Andrei Ivanovich Baron Delwig occurred (1813-1887), later Chief of Staff of the Russian Railways and founder of one of the first railway technical school in Russia. He and the co-initiators of it, a number of merchants to convince them of the expected high profitability of future rail line, making the necessary start-up capital for the corporation without major delays could be collected succeeded.
A few months before the founding of the company, which initially carried the shortened name of the company Moscow - Yaroslavl railway, the initiators requested the Tsar Alexander II an authorization for the planning and construction of the railway line. This came in July 1858 with a circulation to complete the track construction by mid- 1862 at the latest and at the same time to start the planning for a possible route to Fort leadership to Yaroslavl. Since the technical and legal requirements for the track laying to Sergiev Posad had been good, they managed to build it without any major delays in compliance with the deadline. On July 22, 1862, after little more than two years of construction, the first test train could leave the newly built railway terminus in Moscow. On August 18 of the same year the railway line was inaugurated regular passenger services, initially with two pairs of trains per day passed. A few months later the freight between Moscow and Sergiev Posad was taken.
Originally the route was known as the Trinity Railway, as it was primarily built for the railway connection of the Trinity monastery to the destination. However, this should change just eight years after the opening. With a total of over 450,000 passengers transported in the first three years of its operation, the railway proved to be very successful, as the board of the Moscow - Yaroslavl railway company no doubt as to the profitability of an extension was to the northeast. Thus, the 210 km long, already planned the construction of the Trinity Railway continuation of the route to the Volga city of Yaroslavl in February 1870, after eighteen months of construction, into operation. Even in 1864 the route to Sergiev Posad was expanded to double track along its entire length. 1872, a narrow gauge line of Yaroslavl was built by Vologda ( until 1915 it was converted to broad gauge ), 1887 was the railway line from Yaroslavl to Kostroma and 1898, finally, the narrow- gauge railway from Vologda to the Old North Sea port city of Arkhangelsk.
The length of the Moscow - Yaroslavl - Arkhangelsk Railway was the turn of the century about 1100 km, the previously established more than 60 branches for the persons, property or industrial traffic as well as some smaller local rail lines not included. 1900, the Society of the Moscow - Yaroslavl - Arkhangelsk Railway was bought by the Russian state and a little later in the Department of Northern Railway ( Северная железная дорога ) renamed the Russian State Railway - a designation that carries this department until today. With the establishment of a good 700 -kilometer railway line from Vologda to Vyatka in 1905 the Northern Railway was directly attached the same time moved Trans-Siberian Railway, bringing the partial distances Moscow - Yaroslavl, Yaroslavl - Danilov, Danilov Bui and Bui - Vyatka part of this longest thoroughfare Russia have become.
Planning and construction of the station
As built by the Society of Moscow - Yaroslavl - Arkhangelsk railway track was originally only going to Sergiev Posad, saw the first plans for their Moscow railway terminus, no larger facility. For the site of the future node multiple locations were within the then city limits to vote. The decision for the construction of the station right next to the Nikolai Station existing fell in October 1860. Simultaneously, the decision was the planned terminus of the railway line from Moscow to Ryazan Saratov, today's Kazan station to be erected on the south side of the same square. Strictly speaking, turned to the present square of the three stations at that time no intra- urban space is but a large unpaved wasteland near the eastern outskirts of Moscow. Links of Nikolai station were some residential buildings and warehouses of Nikolai train and further left is the 23 -acre Red Pond ( Красный пруд ), which was filled in in the course of finishing works for the station square and is now completely built over.
After preparation of the building site began in 1861 the construction work on the station premises. These and all the station buildings were exactly to receive the regular train service on August 18, 1862, will be inaugurated. The platforms and tracks of the new station received a similar arrangement to the Nikolai Station: In the backyard of the reception building, which had an approximately Π - shaped floor plan, along its two side pods, two platforms were built, of which the right of the exit and left for the arrival of the trains was used. Overall, the station comprised in its original version six tracks, two of which were used for passenger traffic. In addition to the tracks, a reception building for the passenger, a workshop, a steam locomotive depot and a wagon shed were built.
With the conception of the reception building, the architect Mikhail Lewestam was commissioned, whose original design was a little later but subsequently modified by the St. Petersburg Academy of Fine Arts professor Roman Kuzmin. The two-story, up to 12 meters high brick building resembled in style to a simple classical functional buildings: It had two floors and a strict symmetry acting from the outside shape with a flagpole in the middle part of the roof. This left the station look like an ordinary for that time Russian administration building. The house consisted of three parts: the representative central part and two lateral, extended to the rear extensions. On the ground floor of the right cultivation, which extended along the departure platform, waiting rooms to the first, second and third class were, while in the left a space for the loading and storage of luggage as well as the administrative headquarters of the railway company were established. The middle part of the building, which was facing the front facade today Komsomolskaya Square, housed in its ground floor ticket halls, a telegraph office, as well as an entrance hall, through which the passenger was able to get from the site directly to the platforms. Upstairs the entire reception building premises and staff accommodation were housed.
On January 1, 1907, the Yaroslavsky railway station in North Station ( Северный вокзал ) was renamed after the bought up by the State Moscow - Yaroslavl - Arkhangelsk Railway Company became a division of the Northern Railway is located today in the state-owned Russian Railways. In 1936, after a further restructuring of the national rail network, the station was returned to its original and final name.
Extensions and conversions
The first significant expansion of the Yaroslavl station took place in 1868 in the course of extending the railway line to Yaroslavl. He had especially the increase in capacity for the expected increase in passenger flows to the destination. Here, the central part of the reception building remained unchanged, but the two side pods have been expanded, with the left cultivation received an additional floor.
A further expansion there was shortly after the acquisition of the Moscow - Yaroslavl - Arkhangelsk railway company by the state. Since the total length of railway lines and passenger numbers were significantly increased by then compared to the 1860s, the capacity of the last 1868 extended station was no longer enough in 1900 to ensure a smooth clearance. The time from the well-known Moscow architect Lew Kekushev directed extension was limited primarily to the expansion of the platform systems, while the reception building this time no significant changes experienced. Kekushev had built a new platform with a canopy, which were supported by architecturally distinctive, arranged as arcuate portals column structures with a lining made of black granite. These columns are preserved as part of the interior of one of the waiting rooms. In addition, a water tower next to the reception building was built to supply water to the station and the steam trains.
Since this conversion measure the ever-increasing passenger numbers could not do justice to the early 20th century a fundamental expansion of the entire station was still necessary. Fyodor Schechtel, his time one of the most renowned architects of Art Nouveau, 1902 presented a draft, after which the station should be equipped mainly according to its importance as a northern gate of Moscow. He proposed a modification in the traditional styles of Moscow, however, have a clear reference to the old architecture of Russian cities north and therefore should express a close connection of Moscow to the Russian north. This idea Schechtels was recorded with consent, so the Moscow Governor-General granted the modification approval in August 1902. The construction work under Schechtels line lasted from 1902 to 1904, the inauguration of the renovated train station took place on 19 December 1904.
During the renovation of the existing station building two new additional buildings were mainly built on both sides and extended the two rear parts of the building. The old central part of the building was externally completely redesigned, added by three tower structures and massive changes to the front facade were made. The water tower built in 1900 was integrated into the left tower of the central reception building part. By Schechtelschen remodeling the capacity of the Yaroslavl station has tripled about. Also succeeded Schechtel to keep the renovation costs comparatively low: these amounted to 300,000 rubles, while the much simpler held original building had cost 220,000 rubles.
To date, the 1904 completed Yaroslavl railway station is one of the most famous works of Fyodor Schechtels. Since, like all the other buildings by him, is a listed building, located all subsequent station conversions were limited to extensions of the building from behind to redesign and installation of platforms and tracks, while largely to see the front facade of the reception building to this day in its original state from 1904 is.
The ensuing major expansion of the Yaroslavl station took place from 1965 to 1966. This luggage storage compartments have been set up in the basement of the station building originally used for heating systems, thereby creating extra space could be won on the ground floor. Furthermore, there is a two -story annex was in its rear, the tracks facing portion with a held of reinforced concrete and glass facade. This extension now houses a main hall for local transport and part of the waiting room. Erected in 1900 by Lew Kekushev platform has been integrated into it. Since then, its black granite columns are inside the building, while all the platforms were moved a few meters to the north. A simple conversion of new space for the clearance of the long-distance transport in particular was won: The total area of this particular space has been increased by over 70 percent.
The mid- 1990s and the early 2000s was followed by further expansion and modernization of the Yaroslavl railway station, where the handling capacity could be doubled by basic re-planning of interiors of the reception building again. At the same time, the front facade was repainted, replaced the roof and brought the establishment of the waiting rooms on the latest technical standards.
The first and only serious railway accident in the history of the Yaroslavl station happened on 30 August 1897, when during an incoming train from Sergiev Posad, the brakes failed, whereupon he could not stop before reaching the railway Rising time. The locomotive ran thus in an empty baggage car that had stood at the end of the track, broke through with him the delimitation and rammed a wall of the reception building, which was severely damaged by the part. From this incident, reported the next day the newspaper Vedomosti Moskowskije, noting that it " ... has been few injuries to everyone's relief ."
On 3 August 2001, the station was in the headlines after Kim Jong- il had arrived there with an armored special train against 21:40 clock. The North Korean leader was on a state visit to Russia and traveled via the Trans-Siberian route from Vladivostok, which is close to the Russian- North Korean border, to Moscow, where he was received by President Vladimir Putin. On the evening of his arrival in Moscow, the entire Yaroslavl train station was evacuated for several hours, and all trains that depart or arrive at this time, should be deleted or redirected. Early in the morning of that day had the station for 15 minutes be locked after there had been a false bomb alert.
The architecturally remarkable about today's Yaroslavl train station is the 1902-1904 rebuilt by Fyodor Schechtel reception building. In which description is often the so-called neo-Russian style speech, so the Art Nouveau style with strong influences of traditional ancient Russian architecture.
A special feature of the Yaroslavl station also against other works Fyodor Schechtels presents his deliberate reference to striking buildings both Moscow and the ancient cities of northern Russia dar. Since the station did not yet have the function of the starting station of the Trans-Siberian Railway in its renovation in the early 20th century - this was not completed until 1916, and until the mid- 1920s connected via the railway line Moscow - Ryazan -Kazan and Moscow, so that at first as the starting point of the highway of the Kazan station had served - he noted at the time, especially the Moscow input and output port of the north Russia dar. This function of the Yaroslavl station - as the starting point of an axis between Moscow on the one hand and two major cities of the Russian North, Arkhangelsk and Yaroslavl, on the other hand - is reflected at the relief ornaments in the niche of the pediment above the main entrance. There are three municipal coat of arms is presented: George the saint of Moscow, Michael the archangel who defeated a devil, as a coat of arms of the city of Arkhangelsk and the bear with the ax as a symbol of Yaroslavl.
The station building itself was designed by Schechtel so that its ancient Russian style elements draw upon both traditions as Moscow also awaken memories of masterpieces Northern Russian architecture. To the left of the three towers of the building was created on the basis of some of the wall towers of the Moscow Kremlin. The roof structure directly above the main entrance is typical in shape for Moscow in the 15th and 16th centuries; a similar roof has, for example, the Terem Palace in the Kremlin. In contrast, recalls the curved pediment above the main entrance to the gate of the Saviour's Transfiguration monastery of Yaroslavl, and also the right corner tower was held on the basis of several typical churches of the Russian North. Another element of the facade design of the Yaroslavl railway station, which was dedicated to North Russia, are the eye-catching green majolica ornaments in the upper facades with photos of the flora and fauna of the Russian North. They were made in the reconstruction of the railway station in the ceramic workshop of the artist colony Abramtsevo. The latter was by the industrialist and art patron Savva Mamontov, who had been a railway company from 1872 to 1899 Chairman of the Moscow - Yaroslavl - Arkhangelsk, donated.
Inside the reception building, the walls of the main waiting room were decorated with twelve murals by the artist Konstantin Korovin in the course of the renovation from 1902 to 1904, which had also been active in Abramtsevo. In these paintings, which were created by Korovin in 1896 and originally served in the same year as a decoration of the northern Russian theme pavilions at the Nizhny Novgorod Fair, landscapes and scenes of everyday life of the Russian North were represented. During the renovation in the 1960s, the paintings were removed and transferred to the Moscow Tretyakov Gallery, where they can be seen to this day in the original. A sight of the interiors make up today is the already mentioned former supporting columns of black granite, built in 1900 by Lew Kekushev for later shifted platform.
Today Yaroslavl railway station is under all eight railway stations of Moscow the most unused: in 2005 were handled daily average of over 172,000 passengers here, including 24,000 in the distance and 148,000 in local traffic. Thus, the ridership of the Yaroslavl station exceeded the corresponding value of the Kursk railway station by 70 percent, the distance to all other seven remote stations was even greater. The present station has 16 tracks, six of which are used for the handling of long-distance trains and the other for ten traits of transport.
Per day are handled from Yaroslavl train station around 300 pairs of trains. In long-distance varies their exact number for each destination depending on the day and season. So which were strongly influenced by tourists Trans-Siberian trains run more frequently during the summer months than usual, however, the largest proportion in the ridership of the Yaroslavl railway station, the regional trains from Russia often called Elektritschki. These connect the station with certain Moscow suburbs as well as cities and settlements in the northeastern Moscow environs.
In the following tables the most important goals in the near and long-distance transport are shown, for which there is from Yaroslavl train station direct.
* = Only express trains