Youth unemployment as a special case of unemployment is often considered separately because
- The level of youth unemployment rate in many countries of the general unemployment rate deviates ( upward)
- The reasons and causes of youth unemployment are different from those of older unemployed,
- Different measures to combat youth unemployment than the general unemployment are discussed and
- The effect of youth unemployment are perceived as serious.
It is a state -wide problem: Currently (July 3, 2013) held in Berlin a conference of the ministers of all 28 EU countries on this subject held at which is expected to concrete political results. The EU has already decided to issue € six billion on this issue.
- 5.1 Transition I 5.1.1 Problems
- 5.1.2 Suggested solutions
- 5.1.3 policy
- 8.1 References and footnotes
Youth unemployment in international comparison
As a teenager is usually referred to as defined by the United Nations in international comparisons, who is at least 15 and at most 24 years old. A division between youth unemployment and the general unemployment rate is useful because youth unemployment for example, reacts much more sensitive to cyclical changes. For the question of who is unemployed, following the standard definition of the International Labour Office ( ILO) is used.
The coloring of the table takes place in the 4- percent steps:
Is particularly high, with almost 46.4 % and 44.4 %, the youth unemployment (2011, <25 years) in Spain or Greece. But even in France, the figures from the table above, 2011 ~ 22 %, not pleasing. ( Please add any other supporting documents )
Situation in Germany
The situation in Germany falls to 8.6 % positive out of the frame, according to government view, among others, by the dual training system in Germany. Through this system, which the (generally the " practical -Special " emphasizing ) apprenticeship in the enterprises with a ( ia more the " theory - General " hugging ) linked vocational training, is the hiring companies and the trainees themselves equivalent to 50 % of the applied effort removed. The Spanish government has already announced that it intends to proceed similarly in the future.
Because of a current, 2013, ruling in Germany over-supply of training places in individual sectors of the economy given young people from Spain, Portugal and Greece are being motivated to pursue studies in Germany.
Situation in Austria
About 500,000 young people are currently employed in Austria, which is about half of all 15 - to 24 -year-olds. According to AMS- calculation method, the youth unemployment rate has doubled in Austria since 2000. In 2000, approximately 30,000 young people out of work, the end of Q2 2006, there were nearly 50,000, at the end of the 3rd quarter almost 60,000 already, which showcases the rapid increase in youth unemployment in Austria. The overall unemployment rate is, however, dropped to 250,000, which means that now about 25 % of the unemployed are young people.
Most of the information of youth unemployment but offer quite a bit of transparency. Beginning of February 2007 to be while it has fallen to 45,000 the number of youth unemployment, but are also 24,000 15 - to 24 -year-old in training. Among 15 - to 19 -year-olds, there are therefore only 10,000 unemployed, a further 14,000 are excluded when calculating the unemployment rate, however, since they are currently in training. More 35,000 20 - to 24 - year-olds are unemployed, in addition there are around 10,000 in this age group who are in training courses. Thus, a total of around 69,000 young people without work. According to a recent study, there are 75,000 young people who are neither in education nor in employment, unemployed and therefore not reported in training ( NEET young people). To what extent but is long-term dropouts, or only briefly drop out from the education (in the sense of a sabbatical ), was determined in detail.
The number of long-term unemployment among young people is increasing. In the summer of 2006, there were about 9,000 15 - to 24 -year-old, referred to as "long -term unemployed ", which represents approximately 20% of the young unemployed.
According to Labour missing more than 100,000 jobs for young people, because apart from the unemployed, there are 47,000 aid workers in this age group. At present about 8% of 15, so be - to 24 - year olds not occupationally higher future opportunities. The rate of Austrians without education ( professionally, that is only compulsory education ), ie the formal low-skilled ( ISCED education 2/3C ) in Austria is 20%. This includes but also within the company further educated or highly qualified self-employed, who have worked their profession independently.
Education has become one of the most important factors in finding work, especially among young people, because older workers often have much work experience, which thereby provides training in the shade. 17 % of young people are unemployed for a compulsory education at least for a certain time. After an apprenticeship only 6% are affected. Some teens start with 15 years teaching. The so-called " dual system " is is an advantage for the apprentices, because of practical and theoretical lessons are linked. During the last years the interest of young people is increasing more and more for this possibility, at the same time also decreases the supply on the labor market because they are for many enterprises are a burden.
Structural unemployment is the most common reason for youth unemployment. By repositioning it came to less employment in certain fields, where young people in particular were affected.
From seasonal unemployment also around 15,000 young people are concerned, who are employed in the specialist areas of construction and tourism. Overall, unemployment in the winter to about 1/3 higher than in summer.
Forecasts and measures
The outlook for the future be no hope for recovery. Within the last six months, the youth unemployment rate has risen by 15%. The number of training places will likely continue to be reduced. Likewise, the pressure on young people to find an apprenticeship. Another big problem is the " generation". To get a suitable job, young people will probably need to do some internships in the future that are not paid very poor to - despite good training.
Among the best known measures to reduce youth unemployment in Austria include:
- Blum Bonus: Egon Blum has planned with his project by paying for some establishments a certain sum when they train apprentices excess of their needs. This sum is called " Blum bonus ". The project has been around since 06 September 2005 and will be continued by the current federal government.
- JASG - Courses: The federal government has with the help of the Youth Training Consolidation Act ( JASG ) young compulsory school graduates and leavers offered the opportunity to enter without a training place in the professional world and in all major industries. More than half of them can be conveyed on average, which emphasizes the effectiveness.
- Coaches: The AMS has in the last year started a trial with coaching. They should help the long-term youth unemployed with job search. In the first half of 2006 was at least 1/3 of 2,000 job seekers will find it with the help of these coaches.
Situation in Switzerland
Young people are particularly vulnerable to unemployment, because the transitions from compulsory education to vocational training (transition I) and from VET to the labor market (transition II) are associated with an increased risk of unemployment. Adolescents 15 to 24 years old according to the Swiss Federal Office of Statistics.
The transition I ( also interface I ), ie the transition from compulsory education to vocational training is associated with special problems.
In Switzerland, a large part of the training on the dual and triale system is guaranteed. The two terms refer to the number of places of learning, ie two ( teaching and vocational school) or three places of learning (in addition introductory courses mostly by the professional association ). In this system, so plants must be willing to offer training places for apprentices. A large proportion of youth unemployment is because not enough apprenticeships are available.
Poor economic or structural changes often lead to save businesses at the Apprenticeships. The total employment in Switzerland increased 1985-2001 to 6.5 percent. At the same time, however, reduced the supply of apprenticeships by 15 percent. Sun, 3 % less than last year apprenticeships were offered for example in 2002. Since then the situation has relaxed a little. In 2003, the range of apprenticeships increased slightly and in 2004 by 2% to about 71'500. Currently (as of 2005 ) are indeed purely numerically almost enough apprenticeships available, however, the situation is different depending on the industry. In some sectors, such as high-tech and design demand is greater than supply, while the opposite is true for example in the construction and food sectors.
Approximately 30 percent of Swiss companies offer apprenticeships. Ex - Federal Councillor Joseph Deiss assumes that the apprenticeship situation will ease only when a further 10 % of companies in Switzerland to offer apprenticeships.
On the employers' side different causes for the degradation apprenticeships are identifiable. First, the companies want to get the most out of training for themselves in a net benefit. This is mostly the case in Switzerland, but is often not perceived by companies that do not form apprentices. So some companies decide not aware of the training and advertise instead trained professionals according to the teachings from.
Of course, a bad economy leads to fewer apprenticeships are offered. However, often they also break down healthy companies apprenticeships. For example, reduced the bank UBS from 1999 to 2005 the apprentice inventory by 35 percent while earnings in the same period increased by 55 percent to eight billion francs. Sees this as a problematic signal for the apprenticeship market in Switzerland Mario Antonelli from the Commercial Association Switzerland.
The Federal Department of Economic Affairs (DEA) has declared under the leadership of Joseph Deiss tackling youth unemployment a priority. Due to the decline of apprenticeship in 2002, Deiss led in March 2003 as a short-term measure, the "Task Force apprenticeship 2003 ' use. This contributed, through their actions, contrary to the fears of another trend apprenticeships degradation. The short-term measures taken by the Task Force were:
- Promotion of apprenticeships: Persons who are well anchored in the regional economy, motivate other companies to provide additional training places available.
- Start financing of teaching networks: In these networks, companies join together, which would not be alone to train apprentices in the situation.
- Mediation and Mentoring: young people without apprenticeships service geared.
- Apprenticeships Marketing: listings and study the plants made the provision of apprenticeships tasty.
On 30 April 2003, the Federal Council decided also a good example to go ahead and create 100 additional apprenticeship positions in the federal government. In order for the apprentice share of employees rose to the Federation to 2.9 percent.
The study of amosa for youth unemployment in 2004 shows that employers want a reform of the tenth school year to more practical and more cooperation with the local schools.
Further measures that could make the labor market more attractive for companies in general are according to the study " Does the dual education system have a future? " Hans Geser (1999):
- Promote professional baccalaureate
- Expansion of the modular system
- More training networks
- More introductory courses
- More practical training in the operation
On the political level, the problem of youth unemployment will also be addressed again and again. Good solutions from policy-makers, however, are difficult to find. Business representatives also repeatedly emphasize that the problem should be solved by the economy. Such promises of the economy, however, have always resolved into thin air in the past and large companies, such as the above-mentioned UBS, reduce the regular apprenticeship inventory.
On May 18 In 2003, in Switzerland, the apprenticeship initiative to vote. This would enshrine the right to adequate training in the Constitution and set up a training fund to finance the necessary deals. The initiative was rejected by 68.4 to 31.6 percent of the vote.
An application filed by Ruedi Lustenberger 2003 parliamentary initiative calls for the training of apprentices as a criterion in public procurement ( business number 03 445 ). This initiative was discussed in spring session of 2005 on March 1, the National Council and accepted.
As Transition II (also interface II) the step of VET is called into work.
Young professionals are particularly hard hit by the weak economy. At such times, companies are replacing the outlets often than not, what makes it difficult for young career. There is also a discrepancy between the training courses offered to the available jobs in the various sectors. For trades there are enough apprenticeship, but too few jobs for newly qualified, while the reverse is true in the service sector. This means that according to the teaching apprenticeship graduates often have to change the sector and are difficult to place.