As Jugorien (Russian Югория, Jugoria, also Югра, Yugra ) was (mainly chronicles of Novgorod ) referred to in older Russian sources, the region of the West Siberian lowland behind the mountain chain of the Ural Mountains in Russia. In a narrower sense, the term referred to the settlement area of the Khanty and Mansi in the lower reaches of the Ob.
The term " Ugra " was first used in the 11th or 12th century as a collective term for Khanty, Mansi and some smaller nations. It probably comes from the language of Komi, who called their neighboring peoples in the East as " jegra ". It is the root word apparently related to " Ugra ", the name of an ethnic group ( Ugrer ), in addition to Khanty-Mansi also belong to Hungary.
Due to the same stem or on the name of the region are the names of Jugorstraße, which separates the island from the mainland Waigatsch; and the Yugor Peninsula, which forms the Waigatsch opposite bank there.
The area was under tribute under his old name long time the rich northern Russian city of Novgorod trade. Due to the economic activity it came under Russian control and was eventually developed slowly after the subjugation of the Khanate of Sibir. In the historic area of Jugorien region are now the Autonomous District of the Khanty -Mansi and part of the Tyumen Oblast, and of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Some settlements of the chanting - for example, on the banks of Kasym and its tributaries - today are contaminated by the effects of the oil and natural gas production and can not therefore be used in a traditional way.
Literature and sources
- Soy Sokolova: The country Jugorien. Progress Publishers Moscow and F. A. Brockhaus Verlag Leipzig 1982 ( original Зоя П Соколоа. Страна Югория, Издательство Мысль, Москва 1976)
- Region in Russia
- Khanty -Mansi / Ugra
- Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District
- Tyumen Oblast