Zanzibar [ zanziba ː ɐ̯ ] (also Zanzibar; persian زنگبار: Zangi - bar, meaning " coast of the blacks', see Zanj probably) is a semi- autonomous part of State of the Union State of Tanzania in East Africa.
The area consists of the two neighboring islands of Unguja ( also formerly known as Zanzibar), and Pemba, each with smaller islands, as well as the remote little Latham Island, all in the Zanzibar archipelago.
The geographically also calculated for Zanzibar Archipelago island of Mafia in the far south is not part of the territory, but belonged until 1885 to the Sultanate of Zanzibar.
In 2007 the total population was 1,155,065.
The fauna of Unguja documented the land bridge of the island to the African continent during the last ice age. The Zanzibar Leopard was one of the endemic subspecies, which have formed as a new species on the island. He is considered to be extinct since 1991. Around the island, coral reefs and seagrass beds found in the coastal area.
The Tanzanian Wildlife Act applies to the flora and fauna of Zanzibar with a.
On December 10, 1963, the sultanate and then British protectorate of Zanzibar gained independence.
On January 12, 1964, the proclamation of the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba was. After a bloody revolution of the black majority population against the Arab -born upper class ( the islands were from 1698 until April 6, 1861 part of the Sultanate of Oman) to Zanzibar declared itself independent and tended very soon to the socialist camp.
Under intense political pressure from the outside, Zanzibar closed on 26 April 1964, the independent Tanganyika together to the new state of Tanzania.
Zanzibar has as part of Tanzania's state within its own government, a parliament and a president ( since November 2010 Ali Mohamed Shein ). His highest court not subordinate to the Supreme Court of the Union of Tanzania.
The area includes five of the 30 administrative regions of Tanzania ( mkoa ), two on the island of Pemba and three on the main island of Unguja:
Each of these regions is in turn in two districts ( wilaya ) organized for a total of ten districts exist.
The districts are further subdivided into wards ( shehia ). Several wards each form a constituency ( constituency ).
In rural areas, there are at the lowest level villages ( villages ). A ward may have one or more villages. In urban areas, a ward is a district.
Infrastructure and Transport
Zanzibar's road network has a total length of 1600 km, of which the most important connections is paved or teilasphaltiert. The remaining roads are gravel roads or unpaved and repaired irregular.
There are no public transport system in Zanzibar; However it run private shared taxis, which are called Daladala.
In Zanzibar, good transport communication mostly private operators have developed on the waterway between the two main islands and to Dar es Salaam since the end of the 1980s, is handled by the over 90 % of trade. There are Unguja and Pemba to five ports, where both cargo ships and private boats can create. The Zanzibar Port Corporation ( ZPC ) is a public institution that autonomously operates and develops the ports. The quays of the most important seaports of Zanzibar were built 1989-1991 with the financial support of the European Union.
Zanzibar's main airport, Zanzibar International Airport, is located near Zanzibar town. From there there are regular connections to the mainland, to Pemba and to Europe and Asia, which led to a rise in tourism to the islands.
Language and Culture
The people of Zanzibar are of diverse ethnic origins. They spoke Swahili, which is spoken in large areas of East Africa; English is also an official language. Furthermore, Arabic is spoken in many areas.