- Indo-European languages Italic languages Romance Languages Zarfatisch
Roa ( other Romance languages )
Zarfatisch or Judeo - French, Jews, French ( Zarfatisch: Tsarfatit ) is an extinct Romance language spoken by the Jews of northern France ( ie in the region of the Langues d' oïl ), in Flanders and the Jewish communities of the Rhineland (Mainz, Frankfurt am Main, etc.) was spoken. However, the status of the Zarfatischen as an independent language in contrast to the Old French is not without controversy among linguists.
Etymology and history
The term Zarfatisch goes to the Hebrew name for France, Tzarfat ( צרפת ) back. This in turn is derived from the biblical name of the Phoenician city of Sarepta.
After the Jews from the 11th century in several waves, for the first time in 1182, again in 1306 and finally in 1394 were expelled from France and fled in part to the east in the Holy Roman Empire, a new language, Yiddish developed by the extensive acquisition of the Middle High German. With the final expropriation and expulsion from France in 1306 under Philip IV and 1394 under Charles VI. the soil was removed from the Zarfatischen, and the language died out in the 14th century.
The language was written in a variant of the Hebrew alphabet and is first documented in the 11th century in a commentary of texts from the Bible and the Talmud, the Rabbis Moshe ha - Darshan and Rashi. A special feature of zarfatischen language was the fact that they are very extensive use of tiberiensischen system of " dotting " (Heb. Nikkud ) made to better reflect the vowels of Old French. Compared to other Judeo - Romance languages and Yiddish had the Zarfatische less loanwords from Hebrew.