Znamenny chant

Krjuki (Russian крюки, russ for hook ) or Snamjona (Russian знамёна, russ outdated for signs marking), also called Old Russian Neume the central characters in the notation of the Old Russian church singing, called Snamennyj singing. The Krjuki are historically associated with the Byzantine notation and its grade mark.


  • Students Duden, 4th edition, ISBN 978-3-411-05394-0, p 223
  • Вургафт С.Г., Ушаков И.А. Старообрядчество. Лица, события, предметы и символы. Опыт энциклопедического словаря, Москва 1996 / Vurgaft SG, Ušakov IA Staroobrjadčestvo. Lica, sobytija, předměty i simvoly. Opyt ėnciklopedičeskogo slovarja, Moskva 1996
  • Characters ( musical notation )
  • Neume