Zoanthids colony with 2 different types

The anemones ( zoanthids ), also called zoantharia or Zoanthinaria, are a common world, but only very inadequately investigated order of Anthozoa ( Anthozoa ), which, unlike their relatives, the stony corals, any skeleton is missing. Most representatives reach a size of only a few centimeters. In this order solitary living and colony-forming species are represented. Zoanthids are popular Pfleglinge in a saltwater aquarium.


Palythoa species have the poison palytoxin, one of the most powerful natural poisons. It is the most effective toxin that is not based on protein; only maitotoxin is even more deadly. Probably it is, this is a defense mechanism. When working in the aquarium gloves should be worn. When cleaning the outside of the aquarium, such as when cleaning overgrown stones, should be paid to proper ventilation. There is no incubation period, the poison takes effect immediately, both as a contact poison as well as via aerosols. Symptoms manifest themselves depending on the recording concentration in nausea, vomiting, chills and severe paralysis of the entire muscular system. Currently, there is no antidote. Can help a vasodilator drug. Every aquarist should be very careful when dealing with Palythoa species. The Krustenanemone is considered one of the most poisonous animals in the world. Already 0.00015 mg / kg ( according to LD50 ) of their poison enough to kill 50 % of the poisoned creatures.


Rafinesque - Schmaltz order zoanthids, 1815 ( = Zoanthinaria, zoantharia )

  • Subordination Brachycnemina Haddon & Shackleton, 1891 Family Neozoanthidae Herberts, 1972 Genus Neozoanthus Herberts, 1972
  • Genus Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816
  • Genus Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900
  • Genus Sphenopus Steenstrup, 1856
  • Genus Acrozoanthus Kent, 1893
  • Genus Isaurus Gray, 1828
  • Genus Zoanthus Cuvier, 1800
  • Family Epizoanthidae Delage & Hirouard, 1910 Genus Epizoanthus Gray, 1867
  • Genus Thoracactis Gravier, 1918
  • Genus Isozoanthus Carlgren in Chun, 1903
  • Genus Parazoanthus Haddon & Shackleton, 1891
  • Genus Savalia Nardo, 1814
  • Genus Abyssoanthus Reimer & Fugiwara, 2007 ( only type Abyssoanthus nankaiensis )